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oxidation state

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... partially filled by a Mn-Fe bearing chromium oxide film. The areas adjacent to the oxide film were chemically depleted in C, Cr and Mn and rich in Fe and Ni. Associated with this depletion were a large concentration of microvoids. It was suggested that the dissolution of carbides in areas surrounding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... spectroscopy measures the binding energies of the elements on the sample surface and is useful for characterizing the elements that are present on the surface, as well as determining the oxidation state of these elements. Furthermore, a sputtering technique is available through XPS in which layers of atoms can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The results of the autofrettage process, which creates a state of plastic strain in the material, is an increase in the fatigue life of the component. Analysis (visual inspection, 50x/500x unetched micrographs, and electron microprobe analysis) supports the conclusion that the fracture toughness of the steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... cracking. Although copper is not susceptible in the pure state, it is prone to stress-corrosion cracking under tensile stress in the presence of other elements in a damp ammoniacal atmosphere. The material was not defective, but a phosphorus-deoxidized copper type. The residual phosphorus combined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A component of a water filtration unit failed while being used in service for approximately eight months. The filter system had been installed in a commercial laboratory, where it was stated to have been used exclusively in conjunction with deionized water. The failed part had been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... surfaces and, as such, likely caused variations in oxidation rate and oxide state at localized areas of the part surfaces. Oxide formation is highly sensitive to temperature and humidity conditions, and it appears that the higher temperature and humidity of the summer months had exacerbated the problem...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-correction method allows one to obtain useful chemical-state information from insulating samples. Common materials analyzed by XPS include metals, lubricants, semiconductors, metal oxides, glasses, ceramics, catalysts, plastics/polymers, coatings/thin films, and paper. Because the technique is so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Gardette J.- L. and Lemaire J. , Photo-Thermal Oxidation of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers: Part 3—Influence of the Excitation Wavelengths on the Oxidative Evolution of Polyurethanes in the Solid State , Polym. Degradation Stab. , Vol 6 , 1984 , p 135 10.1016/0141-3910(84)90033-8...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0046981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... concave, indicating unidirectional bending with low nominal stress and a mild stress concentration. The position and appearance of the zone of final fast fracture are characteristic of this stress state and mode of loading. Fig. 1 Fracture surface of a 21-2 steel valve stem. Arrows indicate several...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... exhibited a tenacious, black magnetite coating. Fig. 1 Fracture of a steel superheater tube. (a) The interior of the tube that fractured showing secondary cracks and a black contamination layer. (b) Microstructure of the tube showing triple-point cracks and intrusive oxidation damage. The creep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Polymer morphology Polymer features and defects X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Elemental concentrations, oxidation states Chemical composition of surfaces, determination of surface species Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) Elemental concentrations Chemical compositions of surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... energy, such as C because hydrocarbons are present on most surfaces. This charge correction method allows one to obtain useful chemical-state information from insulating samples. Common materials analyzed by XPS include metals, lubricants, semiconductors, metal oxides, glasses, ceramics, catalysts...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... strain. Fatigue damage at high temperatures develops as a result of inelastic deformation where the strains are nonrecoverable. Therefore, TMF damage is complex, as it may accumulate over a range of temperatures and strains under both steady-state and/or transient conditions. Thermomechanical fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... evaluations, the creep cavitation damage assessment, the oxide-scale-based life prediction, and high-temperature crack growth methods. coating evaluation creep cavitation damage assessment elevated-temperature failure gas turbine blade hardness testing high-temperature crack growth methods life...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... and runs the full length of the spring, as can be seen in Figure 3 . Although the origin of this line defect could not be determined by metallography, oxide can be observed ( Figure 3 ) inside this defect. The martensitic matrix and the measured hardness values confirmed that the recommended heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to the turbine by the steam. There were still some of these debris particles present when the incident two years later was investigated but generally the second deposit was found to be of two layer oxide particles which were shown to have spalled from 2-14% chromium reheater tube surfaces. Corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-temperature corrosion and oxidation One reason for many damages is the decarburisation of steel. This may occur in two different forms, namely as skin decarburisation by gases either wet or containing oxygen, and as a deep going destruction of the material by hydrogen under high pressure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... showed that the cracking could not be caused by creep. It was found that the cracking was confined to a 4-mm deep coarse-grained zone (ASTM 0-1) at the outer diameter. The cracking appeared to be caused by strain-induced intergranular oxidation. When the cracks reached the fine-grained material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... , Proceedings of the 11th Plastic Fuel Gas Pipe Symposium , San Francisco , 3–5 Oct 1989 , p 296 – 320 24. Ngai K. , The Glass Transition and the Glassy State , Physical Properties of Polymers , 3rd ed. , Cambridge University Press , 2004 25. Sheridan M.F. , Ed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... properties of samples from the steel flange Table 3 Average mechanical properties of samples from the steel flange Yield strength, MPa Tensile strength, MPa Elongation (50 mm), % Average 335 ± 61 479 ± 43 11.3 ± 1.2 Fig. 9 Oxidized fracture surface of at region A, showing also...