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oxidation resistance

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... 1150 deg C. This type of selective oxidation at which the easily oxidized chromium burns, while the nickel is not attacked, is caused by mildly oxidizing gases and is sometimes designated as green rot. Under these conditions, chromium-containing steels and alloys whose oxidation resistance is based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... was susceptible to s-phase formation when annealed under 800 deg C. The material selected was therefore unsuitable for the stress to be anticipated. In view of the required oxidation resistance, a chromium-silicon or chromium-aluminum steel with 6 or 13% Cr would have been adequate. If the high temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that cause cracking and spalling of oxide scales [ 6 , 7 ]. Further new oxide layers are formed by diffusion of oxidation resistant elements from the metal to the surface, metal becomes severely depleted of oxidation resistant elements. During this continuous process of spalling and cracking of oxide scale...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Hastelloy X nickel-base superalloy 1205 2200 1 HX (17Cr-66Ni-bal Fe) 1150 2100 1 (a) Seamless tube. (b) Electric resistance welded tube Iron oxides alone are not protective above 550 °C (1020 °F) ( Ref 5 ). Chromium, aluminum, and/or silicon assist in forming scales, which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., where G can be various hot gases, with or without dusts, either oxidizing (oxygen, air, or CO 2 ) or reducing (CO, H 2 ). In Table 1 , six types of refractories, from basic magnesia to acid silica and neutral zircon-zirconia are considered. Corrosion resistance of refractories based on the maximum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... for temperatures up to 760 °C (1400 °F). The carbon in the steel reacted with the chromium to form carbides, removing the chromium from solution and reducing the oxidation resistance of the metal. Carbide growth is most pronounced at 650 °C (1200 °F), and cycling of the metal from 650 to 800 °C (1200 to 1470 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... There is no iron- or nickel-base alloy that is totally resistant to metal dusting attack. Research is focused on the reaction chain from the formation of alloy substrate oxide layers and deteriorating conditions. Accordingly, carbon and coke deposition and carbide formation and decomposition are investigated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... oxidation resistance. Production was then converted to a fluxed pellet process, with limestone and dolomite added to the magnetite ore to react with the residual silica. Concurrently, the energy input to the furnace was increased to accommodate the calcination and subsequent reactions of the limestone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Additionally, T11 and T22 offer enhanced creep/oxidation resistance properties. Boiler tubes Creep (materials) Graphitization, Heating effects Mechanical properties Microstructural effects Overheating ASTM A209 grade T1 UNS K11522 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Handbook of Case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... used in the laboratory portion of the failure investigation are mentioned in the failure examples. The topics covered are creep, localized overheating, thermal-mechanical fatigue, high-cycle fatigue, fretting wear, erosive wear, high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, liquid metal embrittlement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... once the oxide scales were removed from the surface of the sample. These cracks contained thick oxide layers which are believed to have exerted a wedging effect. They caused the cracks to open and thus encouraged their growth. The relatively poor fatigue crack resistance of the H13 hot-worked tool...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the 18-cm (7-in.) specimen removed from the failed tube, is a phenomenon that is frequently encountered on nickel-base heat-resisting alloys when they are exposed to temperatures at which their oxidation resistance is marginal. Conclusions The premature failure of the tube by perforation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of internal oxidation is, in the case of Ni-Cr alloys, known as green rot. Alloys containing iron should be more resistant. As a preventive measure it was recommended to reduce the operating temperature of the strip sufficiently to allow the use of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys. Electric heating elements Resistance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... included replacing the material with an alloy, such as RA 333, with a higher chromium content and with an additional element, like silicon, resistant to carburization-oxidation. Carburizing Heat treating furnaces Tubes Hastelloy X UNS N06002 RA 333 UNS N06333 High-temperature corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... , Materials Park ( 1998 ) 10.1361/105994998770347549 4. Smith G.M. , Young D.J. , Trimm D.L. : Carburization kinetics of heat resistant steels . Oxid. Met. 18 ( 5/6 ), 229 – 243 ( 1982 ) 10.1007/BF00656570 5. ASM Handbook . Metallography and Microstructures , vol. 9 , p...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... (1800 °F) using a small hairpin preform of an 82Au-18Ni alloy. This preform could easily be preplaced through the small cooling holes in the base of the turbine blade and was chosen for its excellent oxidation resistance and strength at the 595 °C (1100 °F) service temperature. The bond between the back...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-passive transition become passive (very corrosion-resistant) in moderately to strongly oxidizing environments. Under extremely strong oxidizing conditions, these materials lose their corrosion-resistant properties. Analysis of Corrosion-Related Failures Corrosion can be categorized as being uniform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... with adjacent indentation marks Breakage (cold) C 120 Cracking with oxidation C 121 (a) Fracture surface oxidized completely around edges Hot cracking C 200 Discontinuities caused by internal tension and restraints to contraction (cracks and tears) C 210 Cold cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... partially filled by a Mn-Fe bearing chromium oxide film. The areas adjacent to the oxide film were chemically depleted in C, Cr and Mn and rich in Fe and Ni. Associated with this depletion were a large concentration of microvoids. It was suggested that the dissolution of carbides in areas surrounding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... To summarize, metals that possess an active-passive transition become passive (very corrosion resistant) in moderately to strongly oxidizing environments. Under extremely strong oxidizing conditions, these materials lose their corrosion-resistant properties. Analysis of Environmental- and Corrosion-Related...