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oxidation inhibitors

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0006417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... stainless steel was also recommended. Cadmium plating Corrosion prevention Corrosion products Energy dispersive x ray analysis Inhibitors Iron oxides Materials substitution Pipe bends Scanning electron microscopy 4340 UNS G43400 (Other, general, or unspecified) corrosion A cadmium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the environment; change in the alloy or heat treatment; change in design; use of galvanic protection; use of inhibitors; use of nonmetallic coatings and liners; application of metallic coatings; use of surface treatments, thermal spray, or other surface modifications; corrosion monitoring; and preventive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...: (Eq 2) Zn + 2 H + → Zn 2 + + H 2 Zinc reacts with the hydrogen ions of the acid solution to form zinc ions and hydrogen gas. Equation 2 shows that during the reaction, zinc is oxidized to zinc ions, and hydrogen ions are reduced to hydrogen. Thus, Eq 2 can be conveniently...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... slurry lines used in mining operations unless some method of water separation and recirculation is used ( Ref 19 ). Use of Corrosion Inhibitors Oxidizing inhibitors, such as chromates and nitrites, have been used to raise the potential of an alloy into passive regions and to lower their corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... functions as an oxidizing agent to oxidize iron (II) into iron (III), resulting in the formation of a stable passive film of maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) on the metal surface ( Ref 52 ). Sample inhibitors include, for example, Na 2 CrO 4 , K 2 CrO 4 , NaNO 2 , and NaOH, as well as green inhibitors...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of exterior (top) of tube by fin winding and relatively thick corrosion deposit on the interior (bottom) of the tube. 52× Fig. 5 Branching pit. Corrosion deposit on interior is typical and is probably some form of cuprous oxide. 52× Fig. 2 SEM micrograph of pit with corrosion deposit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., but at high concentrations, they serve as corrosion inhibitors. For example, 1% or more nitrite is recommended for the protection of steels ( Ref 65 ) or rebar in concrete ( Ref 66 ). Inhibition depends on the creation and stabilization of a passivating film of iron oxide on the metal surface ( Ref 67...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... . NACE , Houston, TX ( 1993 ). 8. Allegany Ludlum Corporation . AL-6XN TM ( 2002 ). 9. Hatch G.B. : Inhibition of cooling water . Corrosion Inhibitors , pp. 126 – 147 . NACE , Houston, TX ( 1973 ). 10. Fernance N. , Farinha P.A. , Javaherdashti R. : SRB...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the degradation of various protective systems, such as corrosion inhibitors and lubricants. The article describes the failure analysis of steel, iron, copper, aluminum, and their alloys. It also discusses the probes available to monitor conditions relevant to MIC in industrial systems and the sampling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., attention being given to methods of reducing the amplitude of the liner vibration. Attempts have been made to reduce the severity of attack by attention to the environment. Inhibitors, such as chromates, benzoate/nitrite mixtures, and emulsified oils, have been tried with varying success. Attempts have been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... If a crevice is present, it will produce a relatively long active site. The area under rubber or in a tight joint is easily activated by Cl ion attack. The absence of sufficient oxidizers does not allow the passive film to be replenished and maintained. The dense HCl collects by gravity in the lower regions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., and pipe of ASTM A 106, grade B; similarly numbered ASME SA specifications also apply). A powdery, green deposit found in the interior of an iron-body gate valve of the system was determined by chemical analysis to consist of a trivalent chromium oxide or salt plus iron oxide or salt and 22% combined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... adjacent to longitudinal seam weld Fig. 10 Optical micrograph of the bottom of the pipe Fig. 11 X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of weld oxide Fig. 12 X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of oxide in vent pipe adjacent to bottom iron oxide trail Fig. 4 Photograph...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the several locations of cracking which, in all cases, were found to be similar and of the intergranular type filled with oxide or corrosion product. The association of the cracks with the weld seams indicated that contraction stresses from welding were primarily responsible. Failure of the absorber vessel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.../storage waters are commonly treated with acorrosion-preventative hydrotest package that contains an oxygen scavenger, a biocide, and, frequently, a corrosion inhibitor. Such treatments are not generally used in the case of stainless steel pipelines and vessels. The type 304 stainless steel pipelines...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the tube); and sample 3 (section of the tube near the fracture site) Fig. 2 Scheme which indicates the regions from which samples 1, 2, and 3 were removed Fig. 3 Sample 1 (away from fracture/severe oxidation in the whole section of the tube). Outer wall. Microstructure: ferrite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... that this was not an oxidic tarnish, but a coating of iron sulphide. The points of origin and the fracture propagation are designated by arrows in Fig. 1 . In the pins and coupling 2, the cracks originated in the face plane of the fine threaded part ( Fig. 5 ). In pin 3 a deviation may be noticed since the crack runs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of severe oxidation and corrosive attack along with some adherent debris. Some of the debris exhibited a slightly granular appearance at high magnification. Elemental analysis of the debris via Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) revealed high amounts of potassium. Fig. 1 The inside surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of acetate may involve in the calcium crystal formation in the cooling water system. The polarization study indicates the decreasing of cathodic current by the formation of cathodic inhibitors, viz calcite, and subsequently, due to the penetration of chloride, calcite formation may reduce the resistance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... surfaces of the tubing and the sucker rod #3 were primarily iron sulfide and some iron oxide ( Fig. 15 ). The deposits collected from the sucker rod section #3 were composed of iron sulfide, iron carbonate, plus some manganese. Fig. 15 (a) XRD analysis of corrosion deposits in tube; (b) XRD analysis...