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organic-matrix composites

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and was packed with molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) lithium grease. Metallurgical structures and chemical compositions of the bearing’s matrix materials were inspected using a microscope and photoelectric direct reading spectrometer. SEM/EDS was used to examine the local morphology and composition of fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., distribution, orientation, combination with fillers, and quality of bonding with the matrix ( Ref 4 – 7 ). The main contributor to wear behavior is the filler, which must be selected accurately in order to control the wear of the composite. In the following section, we provide a brief discussion of the effects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in the examination that the fracture involved hydrogen stress cracking. However, the nature of the corrosive attack suggested an interaction between the threaded coupling and biological organisms living in the freshwater environment of the pump shaft. The organisms had colonized on the coupling, changing the local...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., aspect ratio, distribution, orientation, combination with fillers, and the quality of bonding with the matrix), and operating conditions. Fibers are far more wear resistant than the matrix and hence control the wear of composite. Continuous fiber-reinforced composites with a thermoset-polymer matrix...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and improving polymer interactions in a composite matrix. Often, calcium carbonates are used in combination with a more reinforcing filler. The rubber industry uses the highest reinforcement of calcium carbonates. Carbon-carbonated fillers are usually manufactured on a large scale using a mechanical milling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... If this information is not available, rapid, nondestructive, semiquantitative techniques such as energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) tools can be used to estimate the material composition in order to allow the chemical analyst to determine the proper techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the use of an inert gas sputter ion gun. The ion gun is used to slowly remove material, thus exposing a new surface to be analyzed. By sequentially sputtering and taking XPS data, a compositional depth profile can be generated ( Fig. 6 ). If the chemical matrix of the sample is not severely damaged...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...)/diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), which is the principal epoxy-matrix resin system in advanced composite aircraft/aerospace applications. Figure 10 outlines the chemical structures of these materials. TGMDA/DDS absorbs as much as 6.5 wt% water, as demonstrated in Table 4 . The absorbed water results in a dramatic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... recent publications ( Ref 13 , 14 ) present broader discussions of MIC, including a useful introduction to microbial problems seen with nonmetallic materials such as polymers, composites, concrete, glass, wood, and stone. Viable microorganisms can be found over a surprisingly wide range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... By sequentially sputtering and taking XPS data, a compositional depth profile can be generated ( Fig. 7 ). If the chemical matrix of the sample is not severely damaged by the sputter ion beam, chemical information may also be obtained as a function of depth. Similar to AES, exact sputter rates are often difficult...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... present can influence graphitization in different ways: by affecting the stability of the M x C y carbides; by interfering with the diffusion of the carbon in the matrix; or by acting as preferential sites for nucleation. The temperature and the stoichiometric of the carbide composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the material. This can be color fading by degradation of an organic dye. Yellowing and bleaching reactions can also occur by degradation of the polymer matrix. Hazing, cracking, embrittlement, and chalking are other degradation modes. Examples of other additives that may degrade are ultraviolet (UV) or heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... microorganisms can be involved in corrosion scenarios. This is a rapidly evolving area. The introduction of new, cost-effective methods for the analysis of trace genetic material in the form of DNA and RNA molecules extracted from field samples made it possible, in principle, to identify all the organisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... thickness. Source: Ref 4 Thermal Mismatch In composite structures, thermal stresses arise both from inhomogeneous cooling and as a result of a thermal mismatch due to differences in CTEs between the filler and matrix polymer. Ideally, in terms of processing, one should attempt to minimize...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...—approximately a few nanometers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used for the chemical surface analysis of polymers to study the chemical composition. The term surface analysis is traditionally used for surface chemical analysis techniques performed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and XPS, which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., for typical types of damage experienced for metallic components. This article discusses the processes involved in visual or macroscopic examination of damaged material; the interpretation of fracture features, corrosion, and wear damage features; and the analysis of base material composition. It covers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... factors. Outdoor degradation factors affect some materials more than others because of their chemical composition. Weather factors act synergistically on polymer degradation. They influence each other and can amplify their destructive effects. For example, elevated temperatures will increase the rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is of the type S 1 + L 1 → L 2 + S 2 with the formation of S 2 causing the interface composition to change. For porous solids such as refractories with open porosity and with matrix materials being fine and highly reactive, both dissolution and penetration occur; hence, most slagging situations involve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the organic matrix and the onset of mineral deposition . J. Struct. Biol. 158 , 428 – 444 ( 2007 ) 10.1016/j.jsb.2007.01.001 22. Holt J.G. , Kreig N.R. , Sneath P.H.A. , Stanely J.T. : In: Williams S.T. (ed.) Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology . Williams...