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organic-acid-induced corrosion

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... brown (a) Acid producers are often associated with SRB but outnumber them in this case. Organisms such as Clostridia, Thiobacillus , and Nitrobacter are cited as potential acid producers. Source: Ref 37 Microbially induced corrosion on stainless steel leads mostly to pitting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for this form of corrosion. Acid-producing bacteria (APB) and organic acids were identified in external corrosion sites in an extensive Gas Research Institute program on pipeline MIC in the early 1990s. This drew the attention of the corrosion community to APB. Growth media based on the fermentation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... , Kreig N.R. , Sneath P.H.A. , Stanely J.T. : In: Williams S.T. (ed.) Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology . Williams and Wilkins , Baltimore ( 1994 ) 23. Marmur J. : A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from micro-organisms . J. Mol. Biol...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... The nonmetallic deposit found where corrosive activity was well developed is characteristic of attack by sulfate-reducing microbes. 6 The indication, therefore, is that the organism involved is of a variety that was preferentially attacking the MnS microconstituent and metabolizing sulfuric acid, a condition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to Eq 4 . This also applies to corrosion in other acids such as sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active, the other ions such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate do not participate in the electrochemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to produce acidic gradients within the micropits where the graphite nodules lie or are dislodged. Uniform corrosion occurring by the microelectrolytic or galvanic cell in the ductile cast iron is shown in Fig. 8 . Observe the initial stages of micropits being formed by these microcells. Fig. 8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate, do not participate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to induce HE, particularly due to the presence of oxygen, as discussed further. There is a possibility of hydrogen build-in during corrosion reactions. General corrosion in acidic solutions leads to hydrogen generation via the cathodic reaction. Additionally, the pH at the crack tip during stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... can turn into a pitting mechanism if the microcells develop enough to produce acidic gradients within the micropits where the graphite nodules lie or are dislodged. The uniform corrosion occurring by the microelectrolytic or galvanic cell in the ductile cast iron is shown in Fig. 8 . Observe...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cleaning bath is very useful in speeding up the cleaning process. Use of a mild acid or alkali, depending on the metal. A solution that attacks the deposits but not the underlying metal is required. The use of cellulose acetate replicas to lift debris from the surface. If this method is used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...—phosphate corrosion Acid cleaning corrosion Internal deposit/corrosion product buildup Fireside wastage Fireside oxidation Fireside corrosion of superheater and reheater tubing Fly ash corrosion Sootblower corrosion Coal particle corrosion Steam impingement Fireside corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of pressurized gas or air Brushing with a soft, nonscratching brush Washing with organic solvents Use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath and appropriate solvents. The use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath is very useful in speeding up the cleaning process. Use of a mild acid or alkali, depending...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ducting system on fighter aircraft that failed by stress corrosion. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given in inches). (b) Section through the fracture area showing an intergranular crack. Electrolytically etched with oxalic acid. 540×. (c) Specimen of the work metal showing carbide precipitation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the crack branching and also the pitting on the OD. (25×) Figure 8 presents a metallographic cross section of a tank segment in the etched condition. An electrolytic oxalic acid etch (ASTM A 262-98, Practice A) reveals an annealed microstructure with equiaxed grains and without sensitization...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 1 2 ×. (b) Unetched section from location between arrows in (a) showing extensive transverse cracking adjacent to the main fracture (at right). Approximately 4 1 2 ×. (c) Specimen etched electrolytically in 60% HNO 3 (nitric acid) showing intergranular nature of cracking. 100...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... These cracks were identified as transgranular stress corrosion ( Fig. 6 ). Fig. 6 Transgranular branching crack in blade prior to addition of weld buildup at blade-to-hub attachment. Titanium carbide/nitrate particles and their tracks from polishing are visible. Oxalic acid electrolytic etch. 50...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the technique being utilized. A flat and polished sample is ideal for XRF. For OES, a flat but somewhat rough sample is most suitable, such as a sample turned on a lathe with a roughing bit or ground with 60-grit grinding paper. ICP-OES requires chips for acid digestion. Qualitative methods require subjective...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and 1 lm grain size) and etching (solution with 10 ml acetic acid, 10 ml nitric acid, 15 ml hydrochloric acid, and 5 drops of glycerin for about 3 min). Samples of the same materials with fractured surfaces were analyzed in a SEM with tungsten filament operating at 20 kV. Figure 1 shows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... created by the gravity driven corrosive acids created by the bacteria. The lack of operator oversight led to MIC as a result of the stagnant bay water in the pipeline. A review of the operating procedures has since been conducted to remedy the situation. Due to the cost-prohibitive nature of replacing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is that perfect macromolecular structure is corrupted. In this case, 3D macromolecular network is normally formed during curing process, but is destroyed and fractured during storage by strong acids, alkalis, and so on. The third possible reason is that imperfect macromolecular network is destroyed. In this case...