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organic-acid-induced corrosion

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... color surfaces brown (a) Acid producers are often associated with SRB but outnumber them in this case. Organisms such as Clostridia, Thiobacillus , and Nitrobacter are cited as potential acid producers. Source: Ref 37 Corrosion-Resistant Alloys of Steel Microbially induced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... environment and creating conditions favorable to hydrogen stress cracking. This paper describes the analysis of the fracture of the coupling and provides an example of how biologically induced corrosion can result in unexpected fracture of a relatively basic machine part. Biological organisms 416 UNS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Chemical Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion—Production of Corrosive Metabolites Organic Acids Acid-producing bacteria (APB) and organic acids were identified in external corrosion sites in an extensive Gas Research Institute program on pipeline MIC in the early 1990s. This drew the attention...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of equipment; increases pressure drop in water circuits, introduces thermal resistance in heat exchangers and induces corrosion of surface materials. The mixed fouling consisting of microbes and calcium or magnesium salts is, in particular, the major part of the fouling in real water systems [ 11...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4 . This also applies to corrosion in other acids such as sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active, the other ions such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate do not participate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... stress of the swollen material due to plasticization. This is also supported by the results for other glassy polymers ( Ref 30 , 36 ). Destruction of Hydrogen Bonding Some organic acids can disrupt hydrogen bonding between the macromolecular chains in bulk polymers ( Ref 36 ). Solvent molecules...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... particulate air filters. The failure analysis investigation concluded that nitrate-induced stress-corrosion cracking was the cause of the failure. vent pipe nitrate-induced stress-corrosion cracking welding defects galvanized low-carbon steel MnS inclusions ion-coupled plasma-emission spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the evolution of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate, do...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and prevention of several types of failures in which corrosion is a contributing factor. These articles include “ Stress-Corrosion Cracking ,” “ Liquid Metal and Solid Metal Induced Embrittlement ,” “ Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement ,” “ Corrosive Wear Failures ,” “ Biological Corrosion Failures ,” and “ High...
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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of several types of failure in which corrosion is a contributing factor. These articles include “Stress-Corrosion Cracking,” “Liquid-Metal and Solid-Metal Induced Embrittlement,” “Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement,” “Corrosive Wear Failures,” “Biological Corrosion Failures,” and “High-Temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... stress-corrosion cracking. The problem, however, originated on the outside surface of the tank where a tensile stress (due to low applied stress and fabrication-induced residual stresses) accelerated the growth of numerous stress corrosion cracks that eventually broke through to the inner surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a confirmed damage mode of fatigue. Other questions then have to be asked to characterize that fatigue: Was this high-cycle or low-cycle fatigue? Was the fatigue corrosion assisted? Was there evidence of differential thermal expansion? What cyclic loading is present that could have induced the observed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article commences with a discussion on the characteristics of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and describes crack initiation and propagation during SCC. It reviews the various mechanisms of SCC and addresses electrochemical and stress-sorption theories. The article explains...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... constructed. It was determined that the blades failed by fatigue that had been accelerated by stress-corrosion cracking. The mechanism of failure was flow-induced vibration, in which the vortex-shedding frequencies of the blades were attuned to the natural frequency of the blade/hub configuration. A number...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... organisms [ 3 ]. However, if sulfur or manganese is naturally present in the environment or as a constituent of the metal, these elements cannot be used as a sure sign of MIC. Morphology of the corrosion can be another sign of bacterial growth. Subsurface pitting or cavities can be found in MIC-attributed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... attaching the stainless steel skirt to the basket rim and also in the region of the vertical weld which was made when the skirt was formed into a cone. Stress-corrosion cracking of the skirt material, which contained residual stresses due to cold-rolling, had been caused by the presence of sodium chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to determine the cause and suggest corrective action. The causes of failures include tube rupture, corrosion or scaling, fatigue, erosion, and stress-corrosion cracking. The article also describes the procedures for conducting a failure analysis. boilers corrosion embrittlement erosion failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., nonscratching brush Washing with organic solvents Use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath and appropriate solvents. The use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath is very useful in speeding up the cleaning process. Use of a mild acid or alkali, depending on the metal. A solution that attacks the deposits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., for typical types of damage experienced for metallic components. This article discusses the processes involved in visual or macroscopic examination of damaged material; the interpretation of fracture features, corrosion, and wear damage features; and the analysis of base material composition. It covers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is higher than in subcritical units. Because of this, the furnace tubes act more as superheaters than as water-walls. This necessitates the use of a higher grade of materials, such as the high-alloy steels, in the furnace. In turn, materials having higher creep strength and greater oxidation and corrosion...