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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...) and produces a coating layer Lower smoke when it degrades Nylon 6 or nylon 6,6 Source: Ref 138 , 140 Examples of organic and inorganic pigments Table 12 Examples of organic and inorganic pigments Organic pigments Inorganic pigments Azo pigments Monoazo yellow and orange Diazo...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Circumstances Leading to Failure To increase production of a dye intermediate, a 3800 L (1000 gal) lead-lined tank, equipped with copper coils, was replaced with two 75,700 L (20,000 gal) tanks. The process involved acidification of an aromatic organic sodium salt with sulfuric acid at 80°C (175°F) to pH...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article discusses the organization required at the outset of a failure investigation and provides a methodology with some organizational tools. It focuses on the use of problem-solving tools such as a fault tree analysis combined with critical thinking. The discussion covers nine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to the molten solder. Water vapor, hydration inorganics, and entrapped/codeposited organic materials degraded by the elevated temperatures of soldering are among the sources of gases that lead to dewetting. Typically, higher temperatures and longer soldering processing lead to the generation of more gas...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews the most common reasons for failures and the purpose of a failure investigation. It discusses the nine steps for the organization of a good failure investigation. The three basic tools that are helpful in any failure investigation, namely, a fault tree, a failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... organization, being complex mixtures of cleavage and fatigue. Much study of these areas convinced the author that there are four major episodes of stable crack growth represented. Cracking in area A will be discussed in some detail, but area B is essentially similar. Cracking initiated in area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Radiograph of welded part showing cracks adjacent to the weld bead Fig. 2 Location and morphology of cracks as revealed by dye penetrant testing Fig. 11 Microhardness values in different zones of weld joint as taken on reference specimen, i.e. without cracks, are (a) weld zone 345–355 HV...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the material. This can be color fading by degradation of an organic dye. Yellowing and bleaching reactions can also occur by degradation of the polymer matrix. Hazing, cracking, embrittlement, and chalking are other degradation modes. Examples of other additives that may degrade are ultraviolet (UV) or heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... reducers, that is, under 75 kW, or 100 hp, the four mounting feet should not be out of plane by more than 0.05 mm, or 0.002 in., while larger units can tolerate greater values.) Then, both sides of the teeth are coated with a very thin layer of a layout dye. Next, the unit is run for several complete...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... organization, because cultures that allow a particular type of failure to occur will generally not have systems in place that allow simple remedies to be enacted for the deeper level causes. For example, if someone in an organization wants to investigate causes beyond the simple fact of improper hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-ground facilities or submerged structures that receive sunlight. For closed systems and buried facilities, microbial metabolism is based on energy derived from oxidation reduction (redox) reactions. Under aerobic conditions, reduction of oxygen to water complements the metabolic oxidation of organic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... These human factors are generally difficult to investigate within a manufacturing organization, because cultures that allow a particular type of failure to occur will generally not have systems in place that allow simple remedies to be enacted for the deeper-level causes. For example, if someone...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4 . This also applies to corrosion in other acids such as sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active, the other ions such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate do not participate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the testing and inspection required of the braze joint or assembly. Additional inspection and testing are often added by the user of the braze joint or braze assembly. There are numerous organizations that provide specifications for brazing, such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... inward distortion of containers holding liquid products Shrinkage Too-high temperature in service may cause release of orientation. Possible especially for parts made with residual frozen-in stress Change in appearance Color change or fading Improper choice of dye or pigment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Metallographic polishing and chemical etching kit Dye-penetrant kit Magnetic-particle inspection kit Simple chemical tests for plating and alloy identification Visual inspection assisted by microscopy and some nondestructive test methods that do not affect the components as evidence may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the evolution of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate, do...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Treatment <xref rid="a0001818-ref2" ref-type="bibr">(Ref 2)</xref> During a routine maintenance procedure at a power station, dye-penetrant examination revealed linear indications on the outer surface of a cross in a piping system. The cross was specified as SA403 type WP 304 stainless steel that had...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... standards for products Underwriters Laboratories standards for products Local and state building codes National electrical codes published by the NFPA National fire codes published by the NFPA ASTM International standards International Organization for Standardization standards...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... records, and pertinent purchase specifications. Additional information on upfront planning of investigations is also described in the article “Organization of a Failure Investigation” in this Volume. Collecting Data and Samples On-Site Investigation In the investigation of failures, it is also...