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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: change in the environment; change in the alloy or heat treatment; change in design; use of galvanic protection; use of inhibitors; use of nonmetallic coatings and liners; application of metallic coatings; use of surface treatments, thermal spray, or other surface modifications; corrosion monitoring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the evolution of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate, do...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... – 493 ( 2008 ) 10.1016/j.msea.2008.06.035 12. Monney L. , Rouge N. , Dubois C. , Chambaudet A. , Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 62 ( 2 ), 367 – 371 ( 1998 ) 10.1016/S0141-3910(98)00023-8 13. Sickfeld J. , Mielke W. , Progr. Organ. Coat. 12 , 27 – 116...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... at an average depth of 40″ (1.0m) in the ground. It was subsequently learned that corrosion protection provisions included an organic coating of Lion Oil Company E-120 followed by wrapping with a fiberglass/asbestos wrapping material. This barrier protection was supplemented with cathodic protection using...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ( Ref 20 ) or susceptible components of coating materials ( Ref 21 , 22 ), can provide a source of nutrients for microbial growth. Cathodic hydrogen formed on a metal surface ( Eq 3 ) by active corrosion or by cathodic protection (CP) can specifically promote growth of organisms, including SRB...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in protective coatings may lead to severe galvanic corrosion in the localized region of the coating imperfection. It is extremely dangerous to coat the anodic member of a couple because this may only reduce its active area, which severely accelerates the attack at these holidays in the otherwise protective...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in protective coatings may lead to severe galvanic corrosion in the localized region of the coating imperfection. It is extremely dangerous to coat the anodic member of a couple because this may only reduce its active area, which severely accelerates the attack at these holidays in the otherwise protective...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in disk drives consists of a metal, glass, ceramic, or plastic substrate coated with a magnetic material. Data errors are classified as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ depending on their correctability. Examination has shown that hard errors are the result of an abrasive wear process that begins with contact between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in soils along a buried pipeline Factor Range Correlation coefficient Number of acid-producing bacteria (a) , cells/g soil 10 3 –10 8 +0.829 Total organic carbon in groundwater, % 0.05–1.2 +0.645 Soil resistivity, Ω · cm 500–30,000 −0.642...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... an understanding of the role of failure analysis but also an appreciation of quality assurance and user expectations. Quality and User Expectations of Products and Systems Primarily starting in the 1980s, corporations, plants, government agencies, and other organizations developed new management systems...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... be alleviated. Even when using resistant material, the piping should be kept relatively clean with non-stagnant conditions. Bacteria in an aqueous environment will naturally form a biofilm on most surfaces. When the biofilm is formed, organic decomposition can occur. The by-products of organic decomposition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... adjacent to the fracture revealed a strong degree of crack formation ( Fig. 6 ). Fig. 5 A micrograph of the fracture surface (gold coated) of Fig. 4 revealing multiple crack origins, a smooth morphology, and arrest marks Fig. 6 A micrograph of the exterior bracket surface adjacent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in electronic failure analysis, nitride/carbide verification, problematic adhesion investigations, corrosion and coating determinations, and many other investigations where surface chemistry is critical. In addition, the methods are used to analyze both organic and inorganic materials. Figure 8 shows...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion products, and deposits or coatings). Testing under simulated service conditions Finally, the investigation concludes with a synthesis and interpretation of results. This step may actually require reiteration of previous steps or the introduction of new steps. Similar to design, failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A flanged 100 mm (4 in.) diam low-carbon steel spool piece lined with Teflon was removed from a sulfuric acid denitrification system after cracks were observed in the painted coating. Visual and microstructural examination along with SEM fractography revealed scaled iron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for obtaining elemental and molecular-chemical information from both organics and inorganics. In this mode of operation, the sample integrity and chemistry are preserved by applying extremely low primary ion doses (less than 1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2 ) during the entire experiment. This ensures that roughly less...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A femoral knee implant was returned to the casting vendor for analysis after exhibiting poor bond strength between the cast substrate and a sintered porous coating. Both the coating and the substrate were manufactured from a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy. Metallographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., quantification Chemical and molecular analysis, imaging Limitations Insulator analysis challenging, damaging to organics Very few Quantification difficult Major applications Semiconductors, electronics, metallurgy All industries Polymers, contamination, trace metal analysis Fig. 8 Time...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... and epoxy-coated bar. Chlorides Reinforced concrete Reinforcement bars Zinc coatings Steel reinforcing bar Corrosion fatigue Introduction Procedure and Results Conclusions Acknowledgments References References 1. Roper H. and Hetherington G. , “Fatigue Tests...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the exact proportions in the solution can vary, depending on the particular situation. For steel with an organic zinc coating, a solution with 40 mL HCl, 60 mL H 2 O, and 5 g hexamethylene tetramine has been found to remove the coating and clean the fracture face without attack on the metal. Figure 13...