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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract The susceptibility of plastics to environmental failure, when exposed to organic chemicals, can limit their use in many applications. A combination of chemical and physical factors, along with stress, usually leads to a serious deterioration in properties, even if stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Several tubes in a 35 m 2 (115 ft 2 ) type 316 stainless steel shell-and-tube condenser leaked unexpectedly in an organic chemical plant that produces vinyl acetate monomer. Leaks were discovered after 5 years of operation and relocation of the condenser to another unit in the same...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failure analysis. It describes the general considerations for bulk and microscale chemical analysis in failure analysis, the most effective techniques to use for organic or inorganic materials, and examples of using these techniques. The article discusses the processes involved in the chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... as adherent organic residue. Analysis by FTIR of the residue revealed detectable levels of two polymeric substances, which were later determined to be construction materials of the pickling tank. The latter conclusion suggests that the polymeric tank underwent chemical degradation from exposure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A 1-in. diam pump spindle fractured within the length covered by the boss of the impeller which was attached to the spindle by means of an axial screw. The pump had been in use in a chemical plant handling mixtures of organic liquids and dilute sulfuric acid having a pH value of 2 to 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... insulation in an organic sulfur environment, and an equalization tank with localized corrosion in the shell courses in a chemicals facility. In the first two cases, remaining life is assessed by determining the minimum thickness required to operate the corroded equipment. The first is based on a Level 2 FFS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... but has very limited application to organic substances because of the light elements present in many organic materials. Once the elemental profile has been determined via this technique, the chemical compounds that are present may be approximated via stoichiometric analysis, speculation based on known...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., approximately 0.1 at.%; however many of the heavier elements can be detected down to about 0.01 at.% (100 ppm). By monitoring subtle shifts in the atomic binding energies of the emitted photoelectrons, chemical speciation can be obtained from both organic and inorganic materials. Similar to AES, the average...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Organic acids can form soluble chemical complexes with metal ions released by the corrosion process, reducing the buildup of M n + on anodic surfaces. Figure 6 illustrates the damaging effect of trace levels of acetate (the conjugate base of the organic acid acetic acid) in the corrosion of steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., hydrogen bonding, and dipole interactions. Figure 3 provides an example of such forces for a polyamide 6,6, showing how polymer molecules that are next to each other will be attracted to each other as a result of hydrogen bonding. During an ESC failure, the chemical interacts with the less-organized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... small area analysis, imaging Ease of use, quantification Chemical and molecular analysis, imaging Limitations Insulator analysis challenging, damaging to organics Very few Quantification difficult Major applications Semiconductors, electronics, metallurgy All industries Polymers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... , suggested that the scale was predominately an oxide of iron (Fe) (that is, rust). The presence of carbon (C) suggested that organic material was present. There was a noticeable absence of chlorine, consistent with the chemical analysis results, as displayed previously. Results of EDS of surface scale from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... modifier; they are broadly divided into three categories based on critical information provided by the analyses. Chemical Nature Organic and inorganic surface modifiers can be characterized by using spectroscopy (ultraviolet-visible, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance) and x-ray based (energy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A large number of electropolished copper parts showed evidence of discoloration (tinting) after electropolishing. Because these parts are used in a high-vacuum application, even trace amounts of organic materials would be problematic. Scanning electron microscopy of nondiscolored...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., the entire system was chemically cleaned, and chemicals and biocides were added to the coolant to avoid further damaging effects. Fig. 2 Overlay illustration of radiograph of weld at leak site. Four large voids exist in the weld itself. Water Study A water chemist and a microbiologist were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... and salts of organic acids, in addition to hydroxyl functionality. The discoloration was caused by localized rusting of the sink from prolonged exposure to a chloride containing substance. The appearance suggests that the substance may actually have been a drop of perspiration (sweat) from a factory worker...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... materials, encouraging design optimization and medical device research. Presently, implant manufacturers and academic health care institutions in the U.S. are conducting implant retrieval and analysis on an ad hoc basis. 9 The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Chemical Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion—Production of Corrosive Metabolites Organic Acids Acid-producing bacteria (APB) and organic acids were identified in external corrosion sites in an extensive Gas Research Institute program on pipeline MIC in the early 1990s. This drew the attention...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are compiled, compared, and interpreted. Occasionally, a customer might ask only for the raw data, but typically, some level of analysis of the information is requested. Although individual tests and analyses are discrete (for example, hardness testing, chemical analysis, metallography, and fractography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Aluminum 7075 aircraft wing tanks failed in the 1950s. Investigation (visual inspection, biological analysis, and chemical analysis) supported the conclusion that MIC was the cause of the failures. Water condensed into the fuel tanks during flight led to microbial growth on the jet...