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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract Optical testing of plastics includes the characterization of materials and the analysis of optical components. If a material is tested for transmission, haze, yellowness, and refractive index, the knowledge of its optical properties is nearly complete. For optical components, surface...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Optical photograph of a peel test sample partially peeled to reveal the underside of the conversion-coated nickel-phosphorus laminate. More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 46 Fisheyes in E7018 weld metal. (a) Fisheyes in as-welded tensile specimen tested at room temperature. Optical macrograph. (b) Mixed-mode fracture in as-welded three-point bend test specimen at room temperature (SEM). Optical fractograph More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0091853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...-hp motor. The runner consisted of a 50 mm (2 in.) diameter shaft and two gray cast iron grinding plates. Investigation (visual inspection, historical review, photographs, model testing of new plates, chemical analysis, hardness testing, optical macrographs, and optical micrographs) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Testing Helium leak testing of the bellows indicated leaks of greater than 10 −7 cm 3 /s (6 × 10 −8 in. 3 /s) at different locations in the weld joints between the convolutes (detail Y, Fig. 1 ). Metallography Crack Origins/Paths Optical metallography crack extended throughout the fusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...). Fig. 7 Optical micrographs of the failed pin showing the initiation of voids (a) which grow into cracks (b) in the shear bands. Note the voids are round (a). Comparison of the Pins from Various Manufacturers Pins from the three commercial sources were uniaxially tested to failure. Although...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... composition of the sand-cast component was identified via optical emission spectroscopy and is comparable to an aluminum sand-cast alloy, AA 712.0. Metallographic evaluation via optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed a high degree of porosity in the microstructure as well as the presence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... verification, accessed overall workmanship, and measured the respective surface roughness of the rods in an effort to identify any discrepancies. Next, mechanical testing was performed, followed by optical and electron microscopy, and chemical analysis. Finally, ARL performed laboratory heat treatments...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... a map of the local directions of crack propagation over the fracture surface. Fig. 2 Crack-propagation direction and origin identified on fracture test component. (a) Optical micrograph. 0.4x. Crack origin is indicated by circled area. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of the circled area shown...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and weld material, in addition to fractography, EPR testing and optical microscopy in discerning the mode of failure. Various effects of Cl-, O2 and MnS are discussed. Results indicated that the cause of failure was the severe sensitization coupled with probable contamination by S and possibly by Cl ions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The fracture surfaces were examined visually and by optical (light) stereomicroscopy. Material testing showed a sample to be within the specified material limits for aluminum alloy 6061. Microscopic examination showed no significant differences in microstructure or grain size among the four T-sections...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... A constant normal load of 15 N was applied on the pin whose cylindrical surface made contact with the gray cast iron counter body. The linear speed at the wear track was 1.67 m s −1 . After the tests, the pins and wear debris were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Several stainless steel coils cracked during a routine unwinding procedure, prompting an investigation to determine the cause. The analysis included optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and tensile testing. An examination of the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Several type 304L (UNS S30400) stainless steel seamless tubes in a high-pressure synthesis gas cooler condensing ammonia in a fertilizer plant leaked in an unexpectedly short time. Representative samples of the tubes were subjected to chemical analysis, hardness tests, and optical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A section of type 304 stainless steel pipe from a stand by system used for emergency injection of cooling water to a nuclear reactor failed during precommissioning. Leaking occurred in only one spot. Liquid penetrant testing revealed a narrow circumferential crack. Metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... mill for failure analysis. Visual inspection, macro-and microfractography along with optical microscopy and microhardness testing were used to determine the cause of the observed spalling. Experimental Procedure Cleaning dust, metal fines, and oil residues from the samples was performed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of tensile tests conducted near the incipient melting temperature at the grain boundaries. All kingpins made by the supplier of the fractured ones were ultrasonically inspected and six more anticipated to fail were found. It was recommended that the heating of forging blanks be more carefully controlled...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... component sectioning and metallography. Optical metallographic photography is used to document the microstructure and internal structural condition of a failed component. Component failure simulation testing, if performed, should be photographically documented in a manner similar to the documentation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A precipitation-hardened stainless steel poppet valve assembly used to shut off the flow of hydrazine fuel to an auxiliary power unit was found to leak. SEM and optical micrographs revealed that the final heat treatment designed for the AM-350 bellows material rendered the AM-355...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...× indicated flat fracture regions initiating on the inside of the hooks, with several different overload fracture morphologies. Some details of the fracture surface could be examined optically, but much better photographs were obtained with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Testing Procedure and Results...