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optical metallography

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 8 (right) Conventional metallography of crack details (optical, bright field, 2% nital etch). More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract Failure analysis was performed on threaded Ti-6Al-4V fasteners that had fractured in the threads during installation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical metallography revealed that the fractures initiated in circumferential shear bands present at the thread roots...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Visual examination, using the unaided eye or a low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This article presents the guidelines for selecting samples for scanning electron microscope examination and optical metallography and for cleaning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in service. The bellows, which had been in storage for one year in a seacoast environment, exhibited a leak rate on the order of 1 x 10−7 cu cm/s (6 x 10−8 cu in./s). Optical metallography revealed numerous pits and cracks on the surfaces of the bellow convolutes, which had been welded to one another using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Scanning electron microscope backscatter image of exemplar crankshaft fracture Optical Metallography Optical metallography is used in failure analysis to characterize the microstructure of a failed component. The photographic technique primarily employed in optical metallography is digital...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... component sectioning and metallography. Optical metallographic photography is used to document the microstructure and internal structural condition of a failed component. Component failure simulation testing, if performed, should be photographically documented in a manner similar to the documentation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., the extent of the fusion zone, and the presence of cracklike openings. The somewhat unpredictable nature of the combination of these parameters explains the unpredictable life of such bellows, as reported by others ( Ref 1 ) using similar bellows in similar applications. Optical metallography crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis, optical metallography, and spectrochemical analysis. Three similar shafts were operating in the same unit as the fractured shaft. It is not known whether these shafts were affected. The fracture surface on the shaft is shown in the macroview in Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of this was available for examination; it is referred to as the 1977 deposit. Deposit Examination The two deposits were examined by optical metallography and by electron microprobe analysis. Since both deposits were porous, they were vacuum impregnated with an epoxy compound before standard encapsulation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... for the location of point beam microanalyses. The optical microscope of the electron beam microanalyzer further aided in locating the regions of interest that had been initially found by optical metallography. Figure 1 shows micrographs of a section showing regions of interest at both the aluminum/iron interface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to visual inspection/light optical microscopy, metallography, electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was observed that the vacuum cadmium coating adjacent to the fracture plane had worn off and corroded in service, thus allowing pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by the optical ( Figure 8 ), and in particular, by the SEM micrographs ( Figure 9 ). The micrographs from the replicas compare favorably with these micrographs produced by conventional practice. Fig. 7 (left) Transverse section through crack (unetched). Fig. 8 (right) Conventional metallography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... surface examination and optical microscope metallography. It was determined that the tube failed from crevice corrosion under seawater deposits that had formed on the inner surface. Mechanical cleaning of the condenser tubes every 6 months and installation of intake screens of smaller mesh size were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in service. Samples of the failed bit were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy, quantitative metallography, and chemical analysis. The composition was found to be that of 18CrNi3Mo steel. Investigators also found evidence of inclusions and prior austenite grain size, although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... photographic documentation in failure analysis is also presented. References References 1. Vander Voort G. F. , Light Optical Metallography , Materials Characterization , Vol 10 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2019 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684 2. Picard Y. N. , Scanning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... through-wall cracks. Selected regions containing cracks were cut from the larger pieces, sectioned through the thickness of the elbow or wedge, and examined by optical metallography. The cracks were found to be intergranular and highly branched, and the majority of the cracks stopped at the base metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... for metallurgical analysis. Scanning electron microscope fractography of the burst tube showed evidence of IGSCC initiating at the OD, as shown in Fig. 1(b) . Optical metallography revealed IGA under ridgelike deposits, shown in Fig. 1(c) . Deposit analysis indicated a slightly alkaline to a very alkaline...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... analysis. Optical metallography was performed on polished and etched (5% nital) samples from the failed wheel hub. Similar samples were used for microhardness measurements. Results and Discussion The microstructure of the wheel hub was spheroidal graphite dispersed in a ferrite metal matrix...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... centrifugal loading can allow the cracks to progress to failure (refer to Example 5 in this article). The characteristic features of a TMF crack tend to be more evident in metallographic analysis as compared to fracture-surface examination. Optical metallography of a TMF crack in cross section typically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is evident because of the friction processes that took place between the crack mating surfaces. The fatigue striations are poorly visible on the smeared area. Brittle overload occurred via intergranular fracture mode leading to fast fracture and final spalling failure ( Fig. 5d ). Optical metallography...