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optical macroscopes

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and macroscopic inspection, metallographic and chemical analysis, SEM imaging, optical profilometry, mechanical property testing, and EDX analysis. The die was made of chromium hot-work tool steel and the forgings were made of CuZn39Pb3 heated to an initial working temperature 700 deg C. The entire surface...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 32 Austenitic stainless steel high-energy-rate forged extrusion. Forging temperature: 815 °C (1500 °F); 65% reduction in area; ε = 1.4 × 10 3 s −1 . (a) View of extrusion showing spiral cracks. (b) Optical micrograph showing the microstructure at the tip of one of the cracks More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... or worse, depending on the wavelength of light used. Macroscopic Surface Irregularities Macroscopic surface irregularities are tested in several ways, depending on geometry and intended surface use. Curved surfaces of optical quality are tested using test glasses and interferometers, which are based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to 2240 MPa (310 to 325 ksi). The two ends of a single length of spring were wound together to make a loop used in the lip seal. Therefore, mating fracture faces were located on opposite ends of each broken spring ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Optical photograph of spring 1, showing the relation between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract A section of cast iron water main pipe contained a hole approximately 6.4 x 3.8 cm (2.5 x 1.5 in.). The pipe was laid in clay type soil. Examination revealed severe pitting around the hole and at the opposite side of the outside diam. A macroscopic examination of a pipe section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract The shafts on two centrifugal pumps failed during use in a petroleum refinery. Light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the damaged materials to determine the cause of failure. The results showed that one shaft, made of duplex stainless steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract An electron probe microanalyzer was applied to the study of service failures (due to severe heating) of aluminum wire connections in residential electrical circuits. Perturbed regions in which the composition underwent a change during the failure were revealed by optical and scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Examination of a fatigue fracture usually begins with unaided visual observation, often followed by viewing with a hand lens or optical stereomicroscope. Macroscopic examination of fracture surfaces can be performed on-site (when the broken part is accessible), requires little or no preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...” in this Volume). Macroscopic Appearance of Fatigue Fracture Examination of a fatigue fracture usually begins with unaided visual observation, often followed by viewing with a hand lens or optical stereomicroscope. Macroscopic examination of fracture surfaces can be performed on-site (when the broken part...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The examinations included visual macroscopic and stereoscopic examination of the internal (gas-side) and external surfaces of the tube, chemical and metallographic analysis of the alloy, determination of crack propagation mode (intergranular or transgranular), and estimation of the local chemical composition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Spalled fragments from the work rolls of a steel bar straightening machine were received for failure analysis. Visual inspection coupled with optical and scanning electron microscopy were used as the principal analytical techniques for the investigation. Fractographic analysis revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to have occurred after over 30 years in service. Results and Discussion Visual evaluation of the brackets included macroscopic and microscopic examinations using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Analytical evaluation of the material was performed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... in order to establish both macroscopic and microscopic comparative behavior. These controlled tests produced known failure mechanisms and their respective fracture morphology in this material. A direct comparison could then be made with the unknown failure. The paper identifies a method of analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... original subcritical size during the overload fracture process. The macroscopic appearance of flakes 1, 2, and 3 indicated transgranular cleavage, complete with cleavage steps (river lines). At a magnification of 30×, the remainder of the fracture appeared to consist of small, nearly microscopic cleavage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... for failure analysis. Multiple specimens were then obtained from representative transverse sections of the failed subassemblies, resin mounted, and prepared for macroscopic and microscopic examination and stereomicroscopy and light microscopy. The metallographic specimens were etched using equal volumes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A masonry type drill bit, designed for impact drilling in rock, fractured after a short time in service. Samples of the failed bit were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy, quantitative metallography, and chemical analysis. The composition was found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... Microstructural issues influencing roll quality, such as characteristics of carbides, tempered martensite, retained austenite, etc., have been extensively studied through optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, image analysis, and x-ray diffractometry. These are discussed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... The chemical composition of the base material was determined by optical emission spectroscopy per Fed Test Standard 151B, Method 112.2. The part was initially examined visually and from 10–30X with a stereoscope. The surfaces of the part were qualitatively analyzed with the aid of energy dispersive x-ray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... analysis. Optical metallography was performed on polished and etched (5% nital) samples from the failed wheel hub. Similar samples were used for microhardness measurements. Results and Discussion The microstructure of the wheel hub was spheroidal graphite dispersed in a ferrite metal matrix...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... on the fracture surface. The fracture surface was helical in shape, smooth, and flat. Some portion of the fracture surface was found to have been rubbed. A cavity near the center was observed ( Fig. 3 ). The presence of corrosion deposits masked the macroscopic fracture details. After cleaning with 50...