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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 1 Fracture surface of a glass plate broken in bending. The fracture origin is at the top edge of the fracture surface, to the left of the center of the image. Optical microscope; reflected light; picture width ∼1 mm Fig. 2 High-magnification view of the glass plate shown in Fig...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 6 A 1000 h creep modulus of several polymers as a function of temperature. PBT, polybutylene terephthalate; PC, polycarbonate; PPO, polyphenylene oxide; PVC, polyvinyl chloride; PP, polypropylene; HDPE, high-density polyethylene; T g , glass transition temperature Fig. 7 Isochronous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... grinding paper/polishing cloths. 2. Zeiss EPI Optical Microscope - Semi-portable microscope which can be disassembled and reassembled within minutes, magnification range 50 – 1000×. B. Consumable Supplies 1. Silicon carbide grinding paper, with pressure-sensitive adhesive backing (PSA). 240...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A 1984 Chevrolet Blazer was being pushed by three youths after it ran out of gas when it was hit from behind by a 1979 Mercury Cougar. One of the youths was crushed between the two vehicles and killed. Optical microscopy was used to examine the tungsten filaments from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... header for the detonator assembly is diallyl phthalate (DAP) which also contains glass fibers and clay as fillers and various dyes for component identification. The 38 µm (0.0015 in.) bridgewire is pure gold which is soldered to phosphor bronze electrodes using a 37.5 wt % Pb, 37.5 wt % Sn, and 25 wt...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Note the appearance of river lines on the faces of the cleavage surfaces. (b) Fracture of a soda-lime glass. Note similarity of river lines to those of (a). (c) Intergranular stress-corrosion cracking in brass. The grain structure is clearly revealed as the material fails along the grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... stress between the contact and the tab. The fracture surface was further inspected using an optical stereomicroscope. The fracture surface showed no evidence of ductility, as would be evident in the form of stress whitening or permanent deformation. An oily residue was evident covering the crack surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... with the sensor material. A visual inspection of the failed part confirmed numerous cracks within the collar of the plastic body section. The cracks were oriented radially, as shown in Fig. 1 . The cracks were completed in the laboratory and further examination of the fracture surface, using an optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the development of SEM technology and operating principles of basic systems of SEM. The basic systems covered include the electron optical column, signal detection and display equipment, and the vacuum system. The processes involved in the preparation of samples for observation using an SEM are described...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... treatment related failures Open Circuit - Example 1 Open Circuit - Example 2 Open Circuit - Example 3 Open Circuit - Example 4 Short Circuit An open electrical circuit was found between the plated through glass holes at U15-3 and U7-15 in a six-layered printed circuit board after thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to display surface topography. This often involves arranging lights until the desired effect is shown in an exaggerated manner. The lighting from photoflood or similar lamps often results in a suppression of the surface features that are desired. Flexible fiber-optic lighting is often the most appropriate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for metallographic examination. Fig. 22 (a) Energy-dispersive and (b) wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectra of a multicomponent glass. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 23 Basic elements of polymeric materials. (See Table 1 for explanation of locations). Source: Ref 7 Fig. 20 Pitting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , p 981 – 1012 5. Chaudhri M. and Phillips M.A. , Quasi-Static Indentation Cracking of Thermally Tempered Soda-Lime Glass with Spherical and Vickers Indenters , Philos. Mag. A , Vol 62 , 1990 , p 1 – 27 10.1080/01418619008244333 6. Ichikawa M. , Takamatsu T...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., contamination, degradation, chemical contact Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Heat of fusion, melting point, glass transition temperature, heat capacity Material identification, level of crystallinity, aging/degradation, thermal history Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) Weight loss over...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... machines is often eraser residue, which is composed of 50% glass beads by weight and clay from high-quality paper. Some of this material can be kept out with felt wipers and covers, but it is sometimes better to make the bearings of hardened, sintered iron rather than bronze. One insidious effect...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of Glass Fabric Reinforced Polyamide Composites Filled with CuO and PTFE , Wear , Vol 200 , 1996 , p 95 – 104 14. da Silva C.H. , Tanaka D.K. , and Sinatora A. , The Effect of Load and Relative Humidity on Friction Coefficient between High Density Polyethylene on Galvanized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... When a scratch-free finish is attained, the material is etched electrolytically with 10% oxalic acid, and replicas of the surface are taken on 0.13 min (5 mil) acetate tape and transferred to glass slides. The slides are then retained for laboratory evaluation using higher-powered optical microscopes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (a) Materials Visual inspection/testing—direct viewing, borescopes, video, magnifying glass, speckle metrology Visual observation of the test object surface to evaluate dimensions, color, and presence of surface discontinuities Postmanufacturing inspections, in-service inspections looking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., respectively. The specimen was then polished with steel wool in the longitudinal direction, and rinsed with ethanol. The test cell consisted of a 19mm O.D. quartz glass cylinder which surrounded the tensile test specimen. An o-ring was used for a seal at the bottom of the cylinder to contain the test...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... examination of the fracture surface today (variable pressure SEM for polymeric materials). Optical light fractography is still used today for examination of glasses, but the common tool of choice for metallic materials is the SEM, in part because of the increased depth of field and higher magnification...