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optical components

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract Optical testing of plastics includes the characterization of materials and the analysis of optical components. If a material is tested for transmission, haze, yellowness, and refractive index, the knowledge of its optical properties is nearly complete. For optical components, surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can be marked to record the location and condition of each of the macrophotographs taken. Further analysis may require sectioning for microstructural examination. Optical metallographic photography is used to document the microstructure and internal structural conditions of a failed component...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... component sectioning and metallography. Optical metallographic photography is used to document the microstructure and internal structural condition of a failed component. Component failure simulation testing, if performed, should be photographically documented in a manner similar to the documentation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... fiber optic top lighting Fluorescent Lighting Fluorescent lighting produces a more diffused illumination when photographing reflective fracture surfaces and provides excellent overall documentation of the component’s condition. A typical arrangement of single-side fluorescent lighting is shown...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... composition of the sand-cast component was identified via optical emission spectroscopy and is comparable to an aluminum sand-cast alloy, AA 712.0. Metallographic evaluation via optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed a high degree of porosity in the microstructure as well as the presence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article focuses on common failures of the components associated with the flow path of industrial gas turbines. Examples of steam turbine blade failures are also discussed, because these components share some similarities with gas turbine blading. Some of the analytical methods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Hours: 1148 Intended Service Life: Unlimited Visual Inspection/Light Optical Microscopy Figure 2 shows the fracture surface of the sectioned component in the as-received condition. This figure represents a close-up of the fracture surface using oblique lighting, showing the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Each component was analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, mechanical testing, and nondestructive techniques. The results of the investigation provide insights on the influence of temperature, composition, and microstructure and the contributing effects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that the stainless steel be kept rust free. Cooling systems Marine environments Nuclear reactor components Pipe, corrosion Rusting Water cooling 304 UNS S30400 Stress-corrosion cracking Background A section of 250 mm (10 in.) diam type 304 stainless steel pipe failed during precommissioning...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Optical and SEM photomicrographs showing the degree of corrosion after two months. The top two components were blue plastic; the lower was red plastic. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that contacted the bushing and areas at the machined radius where the cadmium coating had been damaged, which allowed corrosion pitting to occur. Optical microscopy showed that the crack origin was located at the machined radius within a region that was severely pitted. Electron microscopy revealed that most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0090908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... conditions than those encountered in most applications of PE pipes. Visual inspection and reflected-light optical micrographs were used to plot bandwidth as a function of crack length. The conclusion was that, contrary to the dominant belief that pipe failure initiates from surface defects, a critical size...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was not known; bulk chemical analysis had simply shown that iron was a major component. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis were used to identify the deposits. In the first instance, the deposit was found to be debris that was left in the reheater tubes during boiler modification and swept...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking of low-alloy steel turbine discs has emerged as a generic concern in nuclear generating stations. An investigation that made extensive use of field metallographic techniques to examine suspected cracking in such a component is described. The crack position...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and microstructure. SEM, optical microscopy, and gas analysis revealed that the subsurface discontinuous cracks at the bore edges and in the fillet radius of the heat-treated end frame component had occurred due to hydrogen embrittlement, and not because of faulty heat treatment. This conclusion was supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... and stripping the nuts from the other two bolts, which remained unbroken. SEM fractography of the fracture surfaces of the four broken bolts indicated that the failure was due to reversed bending fatigue. Optical microscopy indicated that the bolts were heat treated to a tempered martensite structure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Four cadmium-plated ASTM A193 grade B studs from a steam line connector associated with a power turbine failed unexpectedly in a nil-ductility manner. Fracture surfaces were covered with a light-colored, lustrous deposit. Optical microscope, SEM, and EDS analyses were conducted...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Crack-propagation direction and origin identified on fracture test component. (a) Optical micrograph. 0.4x. Crack origin is indicated by circled area. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of the circled area shown in (a). 5000x. Note river marks that coalesce in the direction of overall More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0048535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... appears to have caused another fatigue crack that propagated first over the smooth-banded region. Catastrophic failure occurred when the component became unstable under the applied load. Fig. 1 Optical micrograph showing a fractured automobile stick-shift. Reference Reference 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... alloy A357. It is a geometrically complex component that plays a critical role in the system's aerodynamic structure. However, the results of both the radiology and CT evaluations revealed no casting defects. Therefore, researchers sectioned the part and examined it via optical microscope...