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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The hot gas casing of a gas turbine used for peak load power production had developed extensive cracking during operation. The operating time was 18,000 h, and it had been subjected to 1,600 operating cycles. The gas temperature on the hot side was 985 deg C, on the cold side 204 deg C...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the life assessment methods for elevated-temperature failure mechanisms and metallurgical instabilities that reduce life or cause loss of function or operating time of high-temperature components, namely, gas turbine blade, and power plant piping and tubing. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Two identical “D” tube package boilers, installed at separate plants, experienced a number of tube ruptures after relatively short operating times. The tubes, which are joined by membranes, experienced localized bulging and circumferential cracking along the fireside crown as a result...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... stator was subject to severe erosion after relatively short operating times and initially required replacement after each test program. Although up to 60 cu cm (3.7 cu in.) of material was being lost from each vane, it only reduced the power-absorption capacity by a small amount. Analysis supported the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract The rim of a gear wheel of 420 mm width and 3100 mm in diam broke after four years of operation time in a sheet bar three-high rolling mill. The rim was forged from steel with about 0.4C, 0.8Si and 1.1Mn. The rim started to break in the tooth bottom from a fatigue fracture which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract Several back up rolls of 1400 mm barrel diam from a broad strip mill broke after a relatively short operating time as a result of bending stresses when the rolls were dismantled. The fracture occurred in the conical region of the neck at about 600 mm diam. The rolls were shaped steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract An investigation was conducted to better understand the time-dependent degradation of thermal barrier coated superalloy components in gas turbines. First-stage vanes are normally subjected to the highest gas velocities and temperatures during operation, and were thus the focus of the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... dependent on the time and temperature cooling history of the particular alloy and the elemental composition of that alloy. The transformation products formed are typically illustrated with the use of transformation diagrams, which show the temperature-time dependence of the microstructure formation process...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... infrequently may fail after several years, but the total operating time may be only a few hours of operation, so these should be treated as “acute” failures. When a component fails after it has accumulated millions of cycles during its operating life, it is virtually certain that high-cycle, low-stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel with elongations barely approaching 8%, compared to 50% at the time of delivery weeks earlier. Based on the timing interval and the fact that failure occurred at operating stresses well below the yield point of the material, the failure is being attributed to hydrogen-induced damage. Potential...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... metallurgical examination that it had failed as a result of intergranular fissuring and oxidation (creep rupture). The ruptured area revealed that the header had failed by conventional long-time creep rupture as a result of exposure to operating temperatures probably between 900 and 955 deg C. Three samples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... bolt at the time of re-torque and at the time of initial torque application several years earlier. Aerospace fasteners Fractography Ti-6Al-4V UNS R56406 Ductile fracture As in many industries, aerospace systems and components are subject to time-dependent degradation. The ongoing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... that in addition, from time to time at least, combustion was incomplete and the operation was carried out in a reducing atmosphere, with the result that oxygen deficiency prevented the formation or maintenance of a protective surface layer on the external surface of the pipes. The sulfur would probably...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Tube sheets (found to be copper alloy C46400, or naval brass, and 5 cm (2 in.) thick) of an air compressor aftercooler were found to be cracked and leaking approximately 12 to 14 months after they had been retubed. Most of the tube sheets had been retubed several times previously...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... 621 kPa (90 psi) were recorded three times; more than 690 kPa (100 psi), four times. The last 690-kPa (100-psi) pressure surge occurred about 6 weeks before the failure. When the brine heater failed, the operators immediately went to the control room and found that the steam-temperature valve that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Inconel Alloy 600 tubes. Tube support plates (TSP) separate the tubes and allow flow of the heating water/steam. Inconel Alloy 600 is susceptible to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking over time, so investigation included review of operational records, maintenance history, and procedures. It also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract An aluminum bronze bushing that serves as a guide in a crimping machine began to fail after 50,000 cycles or approximately two weeks of operation. Until then, typical run times had been on the order of months. Although the bushings are replaceable and relatively inexpensive, the cost...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Hydrostatic testing at a pressure times greater than the maximum operating pressure prior to placing the component in service was also suggested. Condenser tubes Condensers (liquefiers) Refrigerating machinery Cu-0.04Sn-0.02Al Ductile fracture References 1. ASHRAE Handbook...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... to three times the case depth, (iii) secondary cracks were observed at the surface. The hydrogen was introduced during copper plate removal by acid dipping. If the tempering operation was performed after the acid dip operation, the hydrogen would have been driven out. Ball joints Forgings EN...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... increased from 430 MPa (62 ksi) at the central portion (where the crack occurred) to 550 MPa (80 ksi). From Fig. 2 , it is seen that this change in stress would reduce the time to rupture by a factor of 1000. The columnar grains on the shroud tips are perpendicular to the applied force and intersected the...