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open-die forging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., or flat initially produced from ingots or, in some cases, made from the product of a continuous casting operation. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure to a fine-grained wrought structure while reducing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds or by continuous casting techniques. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, tube piercing, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure. Many large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed-die and upset forgings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by design problems in the die or by the mismatch of the dies due to improper alignment, poor hammer maintenance, and so on. All of these conditions can produce cracks that open during subsequent thermal processing. The occurrence of cracks was most prevalent in material that was vanadium grain refined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of accumulated zone of oxides and wear debris particles, and ( c ) detail of voids that caused “blowpipe holes” damage Fig. 5 Detail of wear and delamination damages identified in the die surface (showed on white on the Fig. 4b ) Opened cracks show sedimentation of many layers and different...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the crack produced during quenching that was open during tempering. Coarse machining marks and deep stamp marks were also present. Fig. 2(a) Front view of an AISI O1 tool steel die that cracked during oil quenching. The die face contains holes that are too close to the edge for safe quenching. See...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... time for the hydrogen in the outer region to diffuse to a safe level. Flakes that were close to the surface of the die exhibited temper color, but some of the deeper flakes did not. The temper-colored flakes apparently opened during quenching. Figure 34 shows a coil spring made from AISI H12 tool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., and the surfaces became oxidized. Because the fracture surface of the second wheel half had chromic acid stains, it was obvious that the forging defect was open to the surface during anodizing. No recommendations were made except to notify the manufacturer. Aircraft components Defects Forgings Wheels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... strained shoulder region during forging. Because the processing was conducted in air, the cracks open to the surface of the kingpin oxidized, causing the ’dark' regions seen on the failure surfaces. The trailer kingpin, shown schematically in Fig. 1 , fits into the fifth wheel of a tractor to provide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) alloy approximately 6 months after commissioning. A steady clamp is a kind of fitting for the overhead contact system in electrified railways, being applied to fix the copper wires. Typical physical properties of CuNi 2 Si are presented in Table 1 . Steel die forging was applied as the processing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting process, casting material, and design with examples. The casting processes discussed include gravity die casting, pressure die casting, semisolid casting, squeeze casting, and centrifugal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... cycle, a billet is extruded through the die subjecting it to fatigue loading. As the billet is compressed against the die, a deformation zone in front of the die opening forms and extrusion begins with increase of extrusion pressure and reaches to maximum (breakthrough) pressure. Beyond the breakthrough...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to determine where the nickel plating ends and the surface begins, as shown in Fig. 3 (d). Figure 4 shows an example of ion-nitrided hot work die steel with a brittle white-etching iron nitride surface layer that is quite visible when mounted in a mineral-filled epoxy resin, but would probably be very hard...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... distributions after water quenching are illustrated in Fig. 16 . Open and solid circles in the figure correspond to measured stresses on the surface of the cylinder by x-ray diffraction technique. Residual stress distributions after tempering at 400 °C (750 °F) are shown in Fig. 17(a) and (b) for typical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... through stereomicroscopy, fractography, and metallography that the oxidized portion of the fracture was the preexisting forging lap and that both bright fracture areas were created in the laboratory during the breaking-open process. A cross-sectional view of the broken-open lap is shown in Fig. 19...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... it is appropriate to speculate on which is thought to be more likely, as long as the assumptions underlying the speculations are documented: Crack tips often provide more information than wide-open cracks. Look for residual-stress indicators when sectioning ( Fig. 3 ). Document rub marks and nonuniform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or failures. The process is complex, draws upon many different technical disciplines, and uses a variety of observation, inspection, and laboratory techniques. One of the key factors is keeping an open mind while examining and analyzing the evidence to foster a clear, unbiased perspective of the failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-polisher (Diprofiler) which was originally developed for the die-making trade was utilized. This instrument has been found to be suitable for many field metallographic applications, especially for curved or difficult to access locations. Grinding stages were performed with a series of silicon carbide tools...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of die castings Heat-checked die A 114 (a) Thin projection parallel to a casting surface, in re-entrant angles Fillet scab A 115 Thin metallic projection located at a re-entrant angle and dividing the angle in two parts Fillet vein A 120 Metallic projections in the form...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (a) Macrograph of fracture, (b) SEM fractograph, and (c) light micrograph showing shrinkage cavities in an unusual tensile fracture from a carbon steel casting. The microstructure was revealed using nital. Fig. 25 Light micrographs of two cross-sectional views of a seam found on a closed-die forged...