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on-line chemical cleaning

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... ultimately caused by the steam. While under normal operation, the steam's purity posed no problem to the material, during boiler cleaning operations, the generating plant had allowed contamination to get into the steam line. Bellows Electric power generation Steam Xray analysis Inconel 600 UNS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A steam-condensate line (type 316 stainless steel tubing) began leaking after five to six years in service. The line carried steam condensate at 120 deg C (250 deg F) with a two hour heat-up/cool-down cycle. No chemical treatment had been given to either the condensate or the boiler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... impermeable to the diffusion of ionic species was recommended. Chemical processing equipment Nitric acid, environment Spools, corrosion Sulfuric acid, environment Teflon-lined carbon steel Intergranular corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Background A flanged 100 mm (4 in.) diam low-carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... materials problems that require identifying the thickness of a thin surface layer, the composition of a thin-film deposit, the presence of interdiffusion between thin films, or the presence of contamination at an interface between two layers. Maps and Line Scans Because of its excellent spatial...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... profiles Maps and line scans For further information, see the Selected References at the end of this article for recommended reading on AES. Scanning Electron Micrographs Because the electron beam used in modern-day AES systems is similar to those used in scanning electron microscopes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the solution increases. This increase in rate is exponential and yields a straight line when plotted on a semilogarithmic scale as in Fig. 1 . The oxidizing power of the solution is controlled by both the specific oxidizing power of the reagents and the concentration of these reagents. Oxidizing power can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...% other, a composition similar to CDA 377. Corrosion or Wear Deposits A polished cross section taken through a dezincified region of the first valve was examined using an EDS line scan. The scan shows a definite reduction in zinc concentration across the dealloying interface within the β phase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0048303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... in the area of the failure were 52.2/53.0 mm (2.055/2.085 in.) outside diameter × 5.8/8.0 mm (0.230/0.315 in.) wall thickness. There was limited but measurable swelling of the tube diameter of about 2.4 mm (0.094 in.). The measured wall thickness of 5.8 mm (0.230 in.) in line with the failure and 8.0 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Several cadmium-plated carbon steel socket head cap screws that were part of a slide valve assembly on a regenerator line in a petrochemical plant failed during initial loading. Metallographic and XDS chemical analysis in conjunction with SEM examination of one failed and one unfailed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., there was a small intergranular crack. Figure 1 shows a typical example of a corroded weld. A transverse cross section through this weld will characteristically display intergranular corrosion with grains dropping out ( Fig. 2 ). It was also noted that the HAZ next to the weld fusion line also experienced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the forging parting line. All of the properties determined were well above the minimum specified for the material. The steel also complied with the chemical composition requirements of the material specification. A portion of the outside surface near the fracture origin was given a macro etch test...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of a steam line to feed concentrated caustic during chemical cleaning, the preventive measure may be no more complicated than exclusion of the corrodent from that region of the system. In many instances, however, reduction of the level of residual stress is the most effective means of minimizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking Background When the International Harvester Company was in existence, sudden unexplained bearing cap bolt fractures were experienced in a line of diesel engines manufactured at one of its overseas facilities. Examination of engines at various plants...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract An oxygen line that was part of a mobile, truck -mounted oxygen-acetylene welding unit exploded in service. Analysis revealed that the failure occurred at the flexible hose-to-valve connection. It was further determined that a steel adapter had been installed at the point of failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Abstract During a routine inspection, cracks were discovered in several aluminum alloy (similar to either 2014 or 2017) coupling nuts on the fuel lines of a missile. The fuel lines had been exposed to a marine atmosphere for six months while the missile stood on an outdoor test stand near...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... of the exposed sulfide stringers. A continuous line of attack that extended at least 0.58 mm (0.023 in.) below the surface of the metal is shown in Fig. 1 , which also illustrates the distribution and dimensions of the sulfide stringers generally characteristic of the three specimens that were examined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and characteristics of heat source) Chemical composition of base metal Cleaning preparation and after-process cleaning Chemical composition of filler metal Joint protection against oxidation flux, bath composition, protective atmospheres Joint temperature and time Joint design/joint geometry, joint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... separate initiation sites can be distinguished. Also evident in Fig. 4 are numerous corrosion pits, 0.25 mm to 0.125 mm deep — on the inclined face of the groove. Fig. 3 Fracture surface at position A ( Fig. 1 ), illustrating compact oxide scale region within dotted line. Fig. 4 Same...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... not cross it. The tips are blunt and often bifurcated. Because of these features, folds do not tend to propagate as easily as cracks, unless they are aligned with a direction of maximum normal or shear stress. Thread laps below the pitch line are often disallowed in high-strength fasteners for fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... The chemical plant was one of three similar complexes constructed from AISI type 304 stainless steel in the same general location. The two other plants were in the process of hydrotesting at the time that failure occurred. Specimen Selection The stainless steel lines in the tankfarm area were affected...