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oil-ash corrosion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or hot water. Power boilers using pulverized coal, fuel oil, or natural gas as the fuel are used in thermal power plants to produce steam for generation of electricity. They are very large in size and are operated at high pressure and temperature in order to produce high-pressure, high-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in tube metal temperatures. In a superheater or a reheater, such temperature increases can lead to premature creep failures, dissimilar-metal weld failures, and accelerated ash corrosion or oxidation. In furnace walls, deposits may also lead to hydrogen damage (additional information is provided...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperatures; redesigning affected sections to modify heat transfer; and adding CaSO 4 or MgSO 4 to bind SO 3 to a less-corrosive form. Fireside corrosion also can occur in oil-fired boilers. Oil ash corrosion is believed to be a catalytic oxidation of the material by reaction with vanadium pentoxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-generation plants (coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear), pulp and paper mills, waste-incineration sites, numerous industrial chemical processes, diesel engines (power, land vehicle, and maritime), and gas turbine (land-based, marine shipboard, and aircraft). Predicting corrosion of metals and alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... turbines ( Ref 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 ), land-based gas turbines ( Ref 21 , 22 , 23 ), solids transport systems ( Ref 17 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 ), cyclones ( Ref 17 , 28 , 29 , 30 ), valves ( Ref 17 , 31 , 32 ), and inlet nozzles ( Ref 33 ). In the oil and gas industry, choke valves are damaged...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ( Ref 16 , 30 , 31 ), and inlet nozzles ( Ref 32 ). In the oil and gas industry, choke valves are damaged by erosion ( Ref 33 – 36 ). In the petrochemical industry, process control valves ( Ref 36 ) and power-recovery turbines ( Ref 17 , 37 ) are damaged by erosion. In chemical process industries...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with sulfides in the substrate, and the mechanism of attack does not involve aqueous electrolytes [ 3 ]. Hot corrosion is basically the result of attack by fuel and/or ash compounds of Na, V, S, and Cl. Vanadium and sulfur are present in the coal or fuel oil burned in different applications. In some...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was Diesel C (commonly known as Diesel Coke), which is the last fuel distilled from crude oil. It is recommended as a dissolvent agent and boiler fuel but not as turbine gas fuel because of its high degree of oxidation. Furthermore, it behaves as a highly corrosive gas due to the presence of many impurities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mechanisms, while interaction between temperature and corrosion accounts for five. In this system, the damage mechanism driven by three environments is fireside corrosion fatigue, a mechanism that occurs only in boilers where corrosive ash from burning coal or oil is present in high heat-flux areas. Cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is fireside corrosion fatigue. That mechanism occurs only in boilers where corrosive ash (from burning coal or oil) is present in high heat flux areas. Cracking occurs on the outside of the tubes from thermal shock exposure, most typically due to exposure to water in slag cleaning operations or splashing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the deterioration of a material by a reaction of that material with its environment. The realization that corrosion control can be profitable has been acknowledged repeatedly by industry, typically following costly business interruptions. This article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the material, because HCF cracking in turbine components often occurs over relatively short periods of time. Example 6: High-Cycle Fatigue Damage of a Turbine Combustor Assembly An aeroderivative gas turbine operating on an offshore oil platform was subject to a routine borescope inspection, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and ammonia can be very corrosive environments. Another cause of inadvertent general corrosion is improper chemical cleaning using uninhibited acids, excessive temperatures, or prolonged contact time. Water used to wash fire-side deposits where high-sulfur fuel oil or gas was fired will also create very...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... by metallurgical defects C 410 Separation along grain boundaries C 411 (a) Separation along grain boundaries of primary crystallization Conchoidal or “rock candy” fracture C 412 (a) Network of cracks over entire cross section Intergranular corrosion Defective Surface D 100...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for major oil refiners is failures or near-failures that can be attributed to insufficient alloy content in steels for hydrogen service. In one example, a carbon steel pipe section failed that was inadvertently substituted for the specified 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel. This 305-mm (12-in.) diam line ruptured after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...—Nondestructive Examination ASME B31.3—Process Piping ASME B31.1—Power Piping API 650—Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage API 620—Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks API 530—Calculation of Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries Inspection codes: API...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the effects of load frequency and temperature, material condition, and manufacturing practices on fatigue strength. It provides information on subsurface discontinuities, including gas porosity, inclusions, and internal bursts as well as on corrosion fatigue testing to measure rates of fatigue-crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006922
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... (6526.7 psi) continuous tensile stress, resistant to automotive oil. Environment: Outdoor, −40 to 50 °C, humidity, lubricants. Manufacturing: Injection molding in North America. Regulatory: None. Situation: The sidewall of the electrical connector that was exposed to 45 MPa (6526.7...