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oil refineries

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract The shafts on two centrifugal pumps failed during use in a petroleum refinery. Light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the damaged materials to determine the cause of failure. The results showed that one shaft, made of duplex stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article illustrates the use of the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579-1/ASME FFS-1 fitness-for-service (FFS) code (2020) to assess the serviceability and remaining life of a corroded flare knockout drum from an oil refinery, two fractionator columns affected by corrosion under...
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 2 Simplified process flow diagram of potential damage mechanisms for the crude unit/vacuum unit of a refinery. Red circles indicate those types of damage mechanisms identified as stress-corrosion cracking. HIC, hydrogen-induced cracking; SOHIC, stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by Furtado and Le May [ 8 ]. Discussion Graphitization is a reaction which has long been known. According to Wilson [ 1 ], one case of graphitization in tubes of a thermal cracking furnace in an oil refinery was reported in the United States in 1935. The incident aroused no interest, as the graphite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... , Failure of hydrocracker heat exchanger tubes in an oil refinery by polythionic acid-stress corrosion cracking . Eng. Fail. Anal. 16 , 2091 – 2097 ( 2009 ) 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2009.02.002 5. ASM . Failure Analysis and Prevention . Metals Handbook , vol. 10 , 8th edn. ( American Society...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0091594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract Two leaks were discovered at a sulfur recovery unit in a refinery. The leaks were at pipe-to-elbow welds in a 152 mm (6 in.) (NPS 6) diam line, operating in lean amine service at 50 deg C (120 deg F) and 2.9 MPa (425 psig). Thickness measurements indicated negligible loss of metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract After being in service for ten years, two admiralty brass heat-exchanger tubes from a cooler in a refinery catalytic reforming unit cracked circumferentially in the area of U-bends. A blunt transgranular cracking with minimal branching propagating from the inside surface of the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract A tubular heat exchanger in a refinery reformer unit leaked after one month of service. The exchanger contained 167 type 304 stainless steel U-bent integral-finned tubes. Cracks in the tube wall were revealed during examination. Hardness of the tube was found to be 30 HRC at the inside...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...—Nondestructive Examination ASME B31.3—Process Piping ASME B31.1—Power Piping API 650—Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage API 620—Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks API 530—Calculation of Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries Inspection codes: API...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (from minimum up to MCR) 84 (85) barg (A) Feed water temp. Eco. Inlet (from 50% MCR up to MCR) 235 °C Boiler water pH value 9.5–10.5 Firing system Crude oil and B–C oil firing Introduction The boiler feed water and its chemistry are important contributing factors in the promotion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the material, because HCF cracking in turbine components often occurs over relatively short periods of time. Example 6: High-Cycle Fatigue Damage of a Turbine Combustor Assembly An aeroderivative gas turbine operating on an offshore oil platform was subject to a routine borescope inspection, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... illustrate the distribution of oxygen and sulfur on the fracture surface of a cracked pipe from an oil refinery. The SEM image is shown in the upper left, and oxygen and sulfur concentrations are presented by green and blue, respectively, in the map images. Fig. 14 Elemental maps showing areas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... when the steel is either heated or cooled slowly in temperature range 600-800 °C [ 2 , 6 – 8 ]. The problem of environmentally induced SCC and sensitization of stainless steel is of prime concerned to chemical, oil, & gas industries and refineries, and should be avoided, if practical, for any...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., grade C) that had been in service one year in a refinery vessel. 1.5× Corrosion-generated hydrogen causes blistering of steel in oil-well equipment and in petroleum-storage and refinery equipment. In the refinery, hydrogen-induced blistering has been found most frequently in vessels handling sour...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... C) that had been in service one year in a refinery vessel. Original magnification: 1.5× Corrosion-generated hydrogen causes blistering of steel in oil-well equipment and in petroleum-storage and refinery equipment. In the refinery, hydrogen-induced blistering has been found most frequently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... rather than in compression. Case #9: Extremely High Levels of Vibration on the End Cap of a Large Pipe A large pipe (37 in. diameter) at a refinery had levels of vibration over 4.0 in./s on an end cap that was located after an expansion joint. Additionally, there had been failure of several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... between liquid hydrocarbons and underlying water, or areas of low flow where surface deposits can collect ( Fig. 10 ). Microbiologically influenced corrosion has been found in refineries, cooling-water systems, sprinkler systems, potable water-distribution networks, oilfield water-handling systems, oil...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with surface deposits ( Fig. 9 ). Microbially induced corrosion problems are found in refineries, cooling water systems, sprinkler water systems, oilfield water-handling systems, oil pipelines, and pulp and paper mills but are not recognized as a major issue in steam systems ( Ref 57 ). Fig. 8 Friction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 571, “Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry,” identifies five types of SCC (chloride, caustic, polythionic acid, wet H 2 S-SCC, and ammonia) experienced by crude units in petroleum refineries ( Fig. 2 , Ref 6 ). In industrial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or hot water. Power boilers using pulverized coal, fuel oil, or natural gas as the fuel are used in thermal power plants to produce steam for generation of electricity. They are very large in size and are operated at high pressure and temperature in order to produce high-pressure, high-temperature...