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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The steam tug Hercules was an ocean-going and bay tug for 55 years before being retired. It is now being restored by the National Park Service. A broken steam valve was obtained for microstructural examination. The body was gray cast iron, and the stem and seat were brass...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0006897
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... wire is 2.6 mm (0.102 in.) diam annealed copper, and the clamp assembly must withstand a 2470 N (555 lb) load without breaking or slipping. A number of these clamps, located a few hundred feet from the ocean, have failed. The sharply broken wire indicated to weakening by abrasion. The copper tail wire...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Titanic to Ocean Dock were cast off and the RMS Titanic started down the Southampton Water into the Solent, then into the English Channel. As the RMS Titanic passed a neighboring dock where the SS New York was moored, a surge of water from the RMS Titanic caused the SS New York to break its cables so...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract The defects observed along weldings of stainless steel pipelines employed in marine environments were evidenced by metallographic and electrochemical examination. A compilation of cases on the effect of defective weldings, in addition to improper choice of stainless steel for water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... older bridges currently in service along the Oregon Coast. The Rocky Point Viaduct was built more than 40 years ago at a very corrosive coastal site in Oregon within 100 meters of the Pacific Ocean. The maintenance and repair history will be documented and a post mortem analysis of one beam from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as subzero snowfields to deep ocean thermal vents. Halophiles evolved to live at extreme salinities turn pink the evaporation pans used to win salt from seawater. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria create very acidic conditions (pH < 1) by producing sulfuric acid as an end product of their metabolism, while other...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing , E1823-11, American Society for Testing and Materials , vol. 03.01 , 2011 12. Standard Practice for the Preparation of Substitute Ocean Water , ASTM D1141-08 , American Society for Testing and Materials , vol. 11.02 , 2008 13. Scheffel R...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In the 1950s, pioneering work by Zobell isolated sulfate-reducing bacteria that grew at 104 °C (219 °F) and pressures of 10 MPa (1450 psi) from oil-bearing geological formations deep underground. Microbial communities exist in environments as diverse as subzero snowfields and deep ocean thermal vents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that steadily accumulate in the environment, especially in marine habitats ( Ref 1 , 2 ). In an area of marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean known as the great Pacific garbage patch, more than 1.8 trillion pieces of plastic with an estimated weight of 80,000 tons have so far accumulated, with no end...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the evolution of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate, do...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted, galvanic series based on seawater or other standard electrolytes are worthwhile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by a black rectangle were tested in low-velocity or poorly aerated water and at shielded areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. SCE, saturated calomel electrode. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted, galvanic series based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-limiting factors, such as creep or oxidation. The turbine may also be sensitive to the environment in which it operates and the composition of key inputs such as process water and fuel. A number of performance parameters, such as pressures, temperatures, speed, vibration, and power output...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... than in air, due to the formation of chromium sulfides below the protective chromia scale. The introduction of water vapor into air/sulfur dioxide environments accelerates sulfidation attack ( Ref 22 ). Sulfidation of Ni-18Cr and Ni-28Cr alloys was observed to initiate by the formation of NiS, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... sulfides below the protective chromia scale. The introduction of water vapor into air/sulfur dioxide environments accelerates sulfidation attack ( Ref 24 ). Hatfield ( Ref 25 ) observed that sulfidation of Ni-18Cr and Ni-28Cr alloys was initiated by the formation of NiS, which prevented the continuous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... with a soft nylon brush using water and a mild detergent or alcohol is often sufficient to remove surface debris and lightly adhering corrosion products. Specific solvents may be beneficial for removing hydrocarbon contamination, and ultrasonic baths can be used for more tightly adhering deposits. Inhibited...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to vibrations, water hammer, or unstable fluid flow ( Ref 57 – 59 ). Additionally, there is generally a high likelihood of cracking when the input load is synchronous or nearly synchronizes with the natural frequency of the component, resulting in resonance. The damage morphology of vibration-induced fatigue...