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nucleation kinetics

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... analysis distribution of graphite nodules low alloy steel (low alloy steel, general) carbon steel (carbon steel, general) Introduction Nucleation and Growth of Graphite Industrial Cases Discussion Conclusions References References 1. Wilson J.G. : Graphitization of steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation exhibited a good relationship with ambient temperature Charpy data. The electrochemical polarization kinetic reactivation, EPR, approach, however, proved disappointing in that the overlapping scatter in the minimum current density, Ir, for an embrittled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... (714 to 540 °F), the thermodynamically stable phase is different and has a volume about 3 to 4% higher than the high-temperature phase. The transformation kinetics are slow, so that after quenching during the glass tempering process, any nickel sulfide inclusion is still in the high-temperature phase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the decomposition of ferrite and also increases the volume fraction of austenite. This σ phase reaction is favored by aging at higher temperatures (650–900 °C) and longer periods (30 min to 8 h), and the kinetics of the reaction to form σ phase are slower than for Cr 2 N precipitation [ 3 , 5 ]. Austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... International , Materials Park ( 1998 ) 10.1361/105994998770347549 4. Smith G.M. , Young D.J. , Trimm D.L. : Carburization kinetics of heat resistant steels . Oxid. Met. 18 ( 5/6 ), 229 – 243 ( 1982 ) 10.1007/BF00656570 5. ASM Handbook . Metallography and Microstructures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Kinetics of Cu6Sn5 Intermetallic Compound in Cu-Liquid Sn Interfacial Reaction Enhanced by Electric Current, Sci . Rep. , Vol 8 (No. 1 ), 2018 , p 1 – 10 10.1038/s41598-018-20100-1 32. “ Test Methods for Characterization of Printed Board Assembly Pad Cratering ,” IPC-9708, IPC , Dec 2010...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... coalescence occurs in (or perhaps adjacent to) grain boundaries from conditions such as creep cavitation or void nucleation at precipitates in the grain boundaries. The term IG brittle fracture is used when the grain surface does not have dimples indicative of microvoid coalescence. In some cases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... zone adjacent to the grain boundaries. The presence of the second phases may deplete the matrix adjacent to the grain boundary of solute content, lowering its strength. Nucleation of voids at the grain boundaries has also been reported to occur in the absence of PFZs at the boundaries when a large...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 10.5006/0010-9312-11.12.17 143. Ahluwalia R.K. and Im K.H. , Aspects of Mass Transfer and Dissolution Kinetics of Hot Corrosion Induced by Sodium Sulphate , J. Inst. Energy , Vol 64 ( No. 461 ), 1991 , p 186 144. Hanby V.I. , Sodium Sulfate Formation and Deposition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... compares the recrystallization kinetics (amount of recrystallized grains) of steels with and without Nb, showing that the microalloying element delays the recrystallization process and allows the production of steels with smaller (ultrafine) grains [ 16 ]. Fig. 1 Grain size versus time...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... uniformly distributed, although the number and size of voids may increase with time and cycle (i.e., continuous nucleation and growth) or the number may be constant (instantaneous nucleation) with void size increasing with time and cycle. The process continues until the boundaries have lost their structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the component. The origin of this failure mode is understood to be subsurface stress concentrations (e.g., nonmetallic inclusions). The increased stress near these stress concentrations leads to the nucleation of fatigue cracks, which are then able to propagate during subsequent cycles. Historically...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... vol% O 2 . Alloys are protected, to varying degrees, by the oxide layer. The thickness of the oxide is proportional to the parabolic rate kinetics. Oxidation of carbon steels from air or steam forms an oxide scale along the metal surface that grows and thickens with time. Gas composition influences...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to a better understanding of both crack nucleation in regions of localized strain and the subsequent crack growth mechanisms outside the plastic zone in the qualification of component designs or to conduct failure analyses. Infinite-Life Criterion (<italic>S</italic>-<italic>N</italic> Curves) The safe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the end of life must be defined and limited. The conventional design methods are supplemented by the fracture mechanics methods, in which cracklike flaws in the structure are anticipated and included in the design. These methods have all contributed to a better understanding of fatigue crack nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../j.ijfatigue.2013.04.026 19. Findley K.O. , Evans J.L. , and Saxena A. , A Critical Assessment of Fatigue Crack Nucleation and Growth Models for Ni-and Ni, Fe-Based Superalloys , Int. Mater. Rev. , Vol 56 ( No. 1 ), 2011 , p 49 – 71 10.1179/095066010X12777205875796 20...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., the surface-to-volume ratio with powder feedstock increases the likelihood of pores produced by impurities. Furthermore, lower energy inputs that lead to smaller grains and more grain boundaries are likely to experience more regions for impurity nucleation along the grain boundaries and consequently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failure analysis or incomplete root-cause investigation can be very misleading or even dangerous. Ductile fracture occurs from the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of microvoids during deformation. Second-phase particles and inclusions typically provide the nucleation sites for initiation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of microvoids during deformation. Second-phase particles or inclusions typically provide the nucleation sites for initiation of the microvoids, which then grow and coalesce as deformation progresses further. Ductile fracture by void growth and coalescence can occur by two...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1