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normalization methods

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0048350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of fracture surfaces by electron microscopy at high magnification. Fatigue failures were concluded to be caused by vibrations resulting from normal steam flow at high steam demand. Too rigid support near the steam drum resulted in concentration of vibratory strain in the regions of failure. The method...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A failure analysis was conducted on a flow-sensing device that had cracked while in service. The polysulfone sensor body cracked radially, adjacent to a molded-in steel insert. This article describes the investigative methods used to conduct the failure analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the cracking normally or nearly so to the main hoop stress direction. Residual-stress measurements were made using a hole-drilling technique and strain gage rosettes. Large tensile axial residual stresses were measured at nearly every location investigated with a large residual hoop stress was found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... toughness and flaw size at failure, coupled with quantitative SEM fractography using striation spacing methods, revealed that the cyclic stress amplitudes just prior to failure were much larger than expected, in this particular case. Subsequent improvements in fan design and fabrication have effectively...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... a microstructure typical of a medium-carbon steel (carbon approximately 0.4%) in the normalized condition, a material not weldable by ordinary methods. It was concluded that the post-welding crack arose primarily from the thermal contraction which developed in the weld metal on cooling. It is probable...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... subsequently. Special cases affording a simple solution are presented first. These methods are functions of one random variable, strength minus stress (two random variables), the normal format, and the lognormal format. If the problem fits the domain of application of these methods, then these methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... volume into small elements (normally tetrahedra or hexahedra), BEA only discretizes the boundary. Both methods, however, employ continuum material models and produce only approximations. In general, accuracy improves as the number of elements increases. Convergence techniques are generally employed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... be realized through the transient analysis by implementing the implicit direct integration methods into finite element analysis. Figure 4 shows the distribution of the von Mises stress of the shaft subject to a steady transmitted load under normal operation. As seen from this figure, the highest...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Fig. 2 Bend test methods and fixtures. Surface Examination The tests were performed to determine whether the joint was susceptible to stress corrosion by water vapor. All previous testing under normal conditions (either in dry air or in short times) resulted in failure by ductile silver...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... project. Frequently, principal stresses and maximum shear stresses are important to the designer because both are used in common failure expressions to calculate maximum load capability (e.g. multiaxial yield criteria). One failure mode theory is the Rankine (or maximum normal stress) criterion, where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an outline of the issues to consider in performing a probabilistic life assessment. It begins with an historical background and introduces the most common methods. The article then describes those methods covering subjects such as the required random...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... gain a clear understanding of the entire system involved, including specifications, intended functions, normal methods of operation, thermomechanical history, maintenance history, manufacturing history, and operator experience. This information, plus information from subsequent examinations and from...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews the general characteristics of fretting wear in mechanical components with an emphasis on steel. It focuses on the effects of physical variables and the environment on fretting wear. The variables include the amplitude of slip, normal load, frequency...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... method of illumination. Figure 9 shows a view of the fracture surface of a tensile test specimen from a cast steel that has suffered embrittlement, resulting in a “rock candy” fracture. Fig. 9 Low-power light microscope view of a “rock candy” fracture in a tensile specimen taken from a cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., polypropylene; PVC, polyvinyl chloride; PA, polyamide; PI, polyimide; PET, polyethylene terephthalate. Source: Ref 7 Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Table 2 Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Test method Property Gel permeation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-corrosion cracking X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) residual stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement methods are commonly applied to the successful completion of failure analyses and, in many cases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. X-ray diffraction residual-stress measurement methods are commonly applied to the successful completion of failure analyses and, in many cases, are the only viable ones for the acquisition of the required data. X-ray diffraction residual-stress analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the failure, a Fault Tree was theoretically built, and the structural variations of the failed encapsulant were characterized compared with the normal encapsulant, using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), x-ray energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), and differential scanning calorimetry coupled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... methods were used. Our investigation supports the supposition that a live round of ammunition was inadvertently fired. Adapters Automatic weapons Explosions Rifles 4130 UNS G41300 440C UNS S44020 (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture Training exercises are essential at many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-scanning test is conducted with two cylindrical specimens positioned in a cross-relative layout, that is, with the axes in perpendicular directions ( Fig. 18 ). In this method, the upper vertically loaded cylinder (normally representing the tool material) is stationary, and the lower cylinder (representing...