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nonferrous high-temperature materials

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... This is indicative of the off-center vibration of the balls, which entrapped hard particles in the process. The particles could be generated from the balls/groove wear or from some other source. The material of the inner and outer races and balls was T1 (tungsten high-speed steel). The high alloying and high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... High-temperature combustion can be used to accurately determine carbon and sulfur content in ferrous and nonferrous specimens. In this method, a known mass is subjected to a high-temperature environment flooded with oxygen. This environment causes combustion of the carbon and sulfur in the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... For these three microstructures prior to induction heating, the uniformity of the carbon distribution is highest in the low-temperature tempered martensite and lowest in the annealed material where regions of low-carbon ferrite exist with dispersed high-carbon carbides. Figure 7 shows that for a specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and breakage; excessive tool wear; poor material use; high scrap loss The movement of metal during these processes, whether performed at room temperature or at elevated temperatures, makes them common sources of surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, and cold shuts. Oxides, slivers or chips...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Strategies for Analysis and Prevention of Failures Minimizing corrosion of refractories and technical ceramics under severe conditions at high temperature is a very important task that requires the following three sets of problems to be addressed simultaneously: Material selection considering both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis • Loading direction may show failure was secondary • Short-term, high-temperature, high-stress rupture has ductile appearance (see creep) • Load exceeded the dynamic strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing as well as proper...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperatures • Cyclic stress exceeded the endurance limit of the material• Check for proper strength, surface finish, assembly, and operation• Prior damage by mechanical or corrosion modes may have initiated cracking• Alignment, vibration, balance• High cycle low stress: large fatigue zone; low cycle high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... within these bands ( Fig. 11 ). The reason of this phenomenon can be found in escalated temperature of ASBs. This high temperature reduces the strength of the material within ASBs, and consequently promotes initiation of microvoids and microcracks by reflected tension waves [ 18 , 20 ]. This study...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of using ASTM A193B16 bolts, it is better to use ASTM A437 B4B for manufacturing the bolts. This steel is also used in high-temperature services and especially in turbine bolts and may have a better performance in this environment. The authors are thankful to the executive manager of Ray power plant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to tension. Therefore, for a given input global bending strain, plastic deformation will occur at lower strains in compression than in tension. At high compressive strains, an outer fiber of severely plastically deformed material will exist at the intrados of the bend and eventually at sufficient compressive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the cylinder head; the main reason for cracking was the high stress and the plastic strain due to the bolt assembly in the hole, which can be a cause of crack initiation. Subsequently, the pores near the surface of the threads as well as the cyclic thermo-mechanical loadings on the cylinder head could...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the copper substrate also being detected. Examination of the affected, darker areas on the sample was expected to show signs of corrosion attack from an aggressive species (i.e., high oxygen peak due to the presence of tin oxides). However, the spectra all appeared to only show the presence of tin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the temperature in this region was high enough to reaustenitize the structure. The dark-etching zone beneath it was subjected to temperatures below the lower critical but greater than the original tempering temperature due to frictional heating during cutting. Fig. 1 Light micrographs of the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-cast alloy, AA 712.0. Metallographic evaluation via optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed a high degree of porosity in the microstructure as well as the presence of deleterious intermetallic compounds within interdendritic regions. Macrohardness testing produced hardness values...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the workpiece material. Undesired metallurgical transformation involves microstructural changes caused by temperature and high contact pressures. Included are phase transformations, recrystallization, alloy depletion, decarburization, and molten and recast, resolidified, or redeposited material, as in EDM...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., because the temperature in this region was high enough to reaustenitize the structure. The dark-etching zone beneath it saw temperatures below the lower critical but greater than the original tempering temperature. Abrasive wheels should be selected according to the manufacturer's recommendations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and no longer remain in place. At the same time, if contact temperature, due to environmental conditions or frictional heating, is too high, the material in the contact regions is softened and unable to sustain the compacted oxides. If the sliding velocity is relatively high, a second transition toward mild...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... amplitude between partial and total slip ( Ref 47 ). The materials were copper, copper silicon, and austenitic stainless steel, all materials of low stacking fault energy; as a consequence, work hardening occurred at low frequencies, but softening set in at high frequencies because of the temperature rise...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... temperature, time, atmosphere, or flux; conditions of the faying surfaces; postbraze cleaning; and service conditions. Brazeability Brazeability is a term that was coined for the relative ease at which a material may be brazed. Low-carbon steels, copper, and copper alloys (except the high-lead...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... results in an improvement in the surface appearance of the casting. Shrinkage is often aggravated by high pouring temperatures. If the casting does not run with a moderate pouring temperature, it may be because of back pressure due to inadequate venting, use of low-permeability molding material...