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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... thought to be cracks were first noticed in visual inspection after rough machining of the hardened and tempered forgings. Magnaflux test confirmed the defects but did not dispel the doubt as to whether the affected areas were open cracks or non-metallic inclusions. The defects were not in one continuous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the type commonly used for turbine blades. A number of non-metallic inclusions were present which had been drawn into threads in rolling; these appeared to consist largely of duplex silicates. The failure of blade 28 was the result of the development of a creeping crack. Magnetic crack examination of blade...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of concentrated, large non-metallic inclusions near the chromium-plated ID of the cylinder. Also, there were breaks in the chromium plate and pits in the underlying base metal. The cylinder had been in service for 18,017 h, and 5948 h had passed since the first and only overhaul. Substandard plating of the ID...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on to stressed steel parts is not recommended. It would be preferable to use a welded-on patch plate or to employ one of the high-strength, non-metallic adhesives. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Warke W.R. , Liquid Metal and Solid Metal Induced Embrittlement , Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... was manufactured from a 0.5% carbon, 1% chromium steel heat treated to give a hardness value of 300 VDP. The material was in the hardened and tempered condition and showed no abnormalities which would predispose to early failure. The content of non-metallic matter was only of nominal amount. Failure of the shaft...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of sustained tensile stresses. A second factor was a cluster of non-metallic inclusions which had ‘tributary’ cracks starting from them. Also, eyebolts broke when used to lift a light aircraft (about 7000 lb.). The bolt failure was a brittle intergranular fracture, very likely due to a hydrogen-induced delayed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... presents a weaker resistance to corrosion affecting the rod life. Non-metallic inclusions are a pitting preferential site leading to fatigue crack initiation. Heterogeneous microstructure as banded martensite and ferrite/pearlite decreases the ductility of the material affecting the fatigue propagation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was only 108 °C. This high heat transfer rate in Stage 3 would have resulted in condensation of some flue gas constituents on the ID of the tube. These condensed phases later diffused into the base metal due to extended non-operation of the plant. The heat transfer was more in the areas where the airflow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the fractured nugget revealed non-metallic inclusions ( Fig. 6a ) and multiple fracture origins ( Fig. 6b ). Fig. 4 Stereomicrographs of the peeled off nugget, 15×: (a) W3, (b) W2. Note the absence of plastic deformation on the surfaces. Fig. 5 SEM micrographs showing the fracture surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... shaped manganese sulphide inclusions (a preferred site for hydrogen absorption) along with a hosts of globular oxide inclusions were observed in the fracture. Microexamination of a section across the fracture in the initiation zone revealed steel material very unclean due to presence of non-metallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... of secondary phases and non-metallic inclusions. Fig. 2 Identification of samples used for failure analysis The alloy composition was determined by microprobe electron analysis EDS coupled with a SEM. The secondary phases and non-metallic inclusions were evaluated on metallographic cross-sections...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... regions having a texture indicative of a pre-existing non-metallic inclusion. This is shown in greater detail in Fig. 6 . A further section was taken transverse to the crack surface and subsequent examination confirmed the presence of an inclusion on the edge of the crack as indicated in Fig. 7 . From...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... R. , Lange N. , The Origin of Non-metallic Inclusions , vol. 3 , 2nd edn. , Non-Metallic Inclusions ( The Metals Society , London , 1978 ), pp. 1 – 50 12. Sharp G.A. , in Steel Wire for Ropes . Steel Wire Handbook , ed. by Dove A.B. , vol 3 ( The Wire...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... for the corrosion. Normally graphitic corrosion is a slow process 2 , 3 . Comparable occurrences were found, however, in a relatively short time during tests to isolate electrolytically graphite, phosphide, carbides and non-metallic inclusions in the cast iron. Therefore it is reasonable to assume...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... distribution on the hydrogen induced blister cracking in pressure vessel and pipeline steels . Corros. Sci. 43 , 325 – 339 ( 2001 ) 10.1016/S0010-938X(00)00084-6 9. Jin T.Y. , Liu Z.Y. , Cheng Y.F. , Effect of non-metallic inclusions on hydrogen-induced cracking of API5L X100 steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , Becker W.T. , and Shipley R.J. , Ed., ASM International , 2002 , 671 – 699 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543 The primary objective of a metallurgical failure analysis is to determine the root cause of failure. Whether dealing with metallic or non-metallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and hydrogen; the field illustrated in Fig. 23 is certainly indicative of such an effect. The photomicrograph Fig. 24 shows the development of voids round non-metallic inclusions. Such voids may have been produced by the pressure exerted by molecular hydrogen formed from combination of hydrogen formed from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... formation it was evidenced that P increased the density of Manganese Sulphide non-metallic inclusions which served as prime nucleation sites for creep voids. Finally Burke and Howe ( 8 ) have recently reported that lowering the Phosphorus content from 0.02 to 0.007% essentially decreased the creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The microstructure of the metal appeared normal for drawn wire and contained no non-metallic inclusions that would act as stress raisers. The spring failed by fatigue that was initiated at a bending-tool indentation and at spiral rotary-straightener marks. The small bend radius at the fracture zone contributed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... 6 Brittle facets, dimples, hairline cracks and micropores under SEM examination, at × 450 Fig. 7 Rod-shaped sulphide inclusions under SEM examination, at × 450 The end frame material was comparatively found cleaner as regards non-metallic inclusions. Chemical analysis confirmed...