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nitrogen hydrogen degassing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with low moisture or hydrogen content, avoidance of late addition of lime during smelting process, minimization of carry over slag, efficient degassing at deep vacuum and intense purging, recarburization with low hydrogen pet coke and control of ladle slag basicity [ 5 ]. Conclusions Incidence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of weld discontinuities. The roles of cooling rate (base metal thickness and joint configuration), composition of the base metal (e.g., carbon equivalent for carbon steel), level of hydrogen in the welding process, pre- and postheating, as well as the heat input of the process are not addressed in detail...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: Overload failure by brittle cracking mechanisms Overload failure by ductile cracking mechanisms Plastic collapse Buckling Fatigue Corrosion fatigue Corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Hydrogen-induced cracking If elevated temperatures were involved, then creep deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microstructure ( Fig. 16(b) ) revealed an overaustenitized condition, coarse plate martensite, and retained austenite (white). The hardness was 61 to 62 HRC. A section was cooled in liquid nitrogen, which transformed much of the retained austenite to martensite and increased the hardness to 64 to 65 HRC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... was cooled in liquid nitrogen, which transformed much of the retained austenite to martensite and increased the hardness to 64 to 65 HRC. The surface was decarburized with a hardness of 55 to 57 HRC, which did not change after refrigeration. Fig. 16 (a) AISI O1 tool steel ring forging that cracked...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and copper. In determining if gas evolution can cause porosity, the thermodynamics for the reactions must be evaluated, as discussed in the article “Gases in Metals” in Casting, Volume 15 of ASM Handbook . The gases in cast iron that can cause porosity are hydrogen and nitrogen. Aluminum and copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and elastomers. Functions of the Extruder The screw is primarily responsible for five of the six main functions of an extruder: solids conveying, melting, melt conveying/pumping, mixing, and degassing. The sixth function (shaping and forming) is performed by the die and webline handling unit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9