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niobium

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 5 Example of a layered structure of copper, niobium, and zirconium. (a) Imaged using secondary electrons. (b) Imaged using backscattered electrons. Copper appears dark gray, zirconium is light gray, and niobium is white. More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 5 SEM micrograph showing aligned dendrites and associated niobium carbide particles. Note crack following interdendritic path. 1000×. More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 9 Micrograph showing niobium carbides in interdendritic spaces. Etched in electrolytic nitric acid. 1000×. More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 13 SEM micrograph showing a titanium carbonitride and niobium carbide ( a ), dot mapping of titanium ( b ), and dot mapping of niobium ( b ) More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 14 SEM micrograph showing a string of titanium carbonitrides and niobium carbides ( a ), dot mapping of titanium ( b ), and dot mapping of niobium ( c ) More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Combined SEM/AES analysis of failed niobium alloy rocket-nozzle component. (a) Intergranular-fracture surface with contaminant particles on grain facets. (b) AES spectra of contaminated fracture surface More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 5 Example of a layered structure of copper, niobium, and zirconium. (a) Imaged using secondary electrons. (b) Imaged using backscattered electrons. Copper appears dark gray, zirconium is light gray, and niobium is white. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Cracks, with no other damage, were observed in a niobium alloy (Nb-106) part when it was pulled from several months of protective storage for assembly into a rocket nozzle. SEM views showed the cracks to be intergranular, with contaminant particles on a large number of the grain facets...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract This investigation characterizes five surgical stainless steel piercings and one niobium piercing that caused adverse reactions during use, culminating with the removal of the jewelry. Chemical composition shows that none of the materials are in accordance with ISO standards...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., the presence of niobium-bearing carbide particles associated with the dendrites, and a crack following the interdendritic path. Figure 6 is a high-magnification view of this area and reveals microcracks adjacent to the carbide particles. Figure 7 , taken from a polished specimen, shows corrosion product...
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Published: 15 January 2021
results from the spectrum, atomic contrast, shape of the precipitates, and engineering judgement, the precipitates were determined to be niobium carbides, and the base metal was determined to be 15-5 PH steel. The niobium carbides are inherent to 15-5 PH steel. Courtesy of T. Long, NASA More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0045987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... and had a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature exceeding 93 deg C (200 deg F). This transition temperature was much too high for the application. It was recommended that a modified ASTM A572, grade 42 (0.15% C max), type 1 or 2, steel be used (type 1, which contains niobium, may be needed to meet...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Jewelry in the condition as received. (a) Stainless steel nipple piercings (Jewelry 1, 2, and 3 from left to right). (b) Niobium nipple piercing (Jewelry 4). (c) Stainless steel navel piercings (Jewelry 5, left; Jewelry 6, right) More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... that the sheets were made of unstabilised chromium-nickel steels. The chemical analysis for carbon yielded 0.08% C in the outer sheet and 0.05% C in the inner sheet. Steels with more than 0.07% C are not suitable for welding if the carbon is not bound to a stabilising element such as titanium or niobium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to have the following composition: Per cent. Chromium 23.0 Nickel 18.0 Molybdenum 1.8 Silicon 1.2 Manganese 0.75 Titanium Nil Niobium Nil As far as it was possible to ascertain, this particular composition does not conform to a standard specification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... showed a secondary phase in the cover pass rich in nickel, niobium, and silicon. This phase varied in terms of the relative niobium content. Niobium is also an effective carbide stabilizer. Corrosion Deposits Grain boundary oxidation products were identified through EDS as consisting mostly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... both room temperature and high temperature deformation of the material. Figure 13 shows a particle precipitated at grain boundaries, which was initially formed as a titanium carbonitride and then became a substrate for a niobium carbide layer, as confirmed by other authors [ 20 ]. Fig. 13 SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... (0.032 in.) thick, and the V-section was 1.3 mm (0.050 in.) thick; both were made of 19-9 DL heat-resisting alloy with the following composition: Element Composition, % Carbon 0.3 Manganese 1.1 Silicon 0.6 Chromium 19 Nickel 9 Molybdenum 1.25 Tungsten 1.2 Niobium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and to streamline gas flow across the convolutions. Chemical Analyses Chemical analyses were made of the piping and of samples from welds 1 and 2 ( Fig. 1 ). Although some minor deviations from normal composition were found (particularly involving molybdenum, niobium, and titanium contents), these deviations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... fabrications there are obvious practical difficulties of carrying out such treatment. By the addition of titanium or niobium to the steel — the so-called “stabilising elements” — which have a greater affinity for carbon thar does chromium so that titanium or niobium carbides are preferentially formed...