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nickel-rich austenitic stainless steel

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... carbides. Electron-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) of the external oxide scale showed considerable variation in the proportions of iron and chromium. The example in Fig. 4 showed that the outer portion was chromium rich, whereas the inner portion was rich in iron and nickel. Fig. 4 Back-scattered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... grains, with no significant differences between the affected and unaffected segments. The cladding hardnesses in both segments were similar, 88 to 91 HRB. The hardness of the carbon steel was 82 HRB. Both segments exhibited a nickel-rich intermediate bond layer, 25 mm thick. The austenitic grain size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... pressure vessels containing ammoniacal materials that are used as a fertilizer, or stainless steel components subjected to chlorides Chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and refining industries: Carbon, low-alloy, stainless steel, and nickel alloy process piping and vessels Manufacturing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract A 5000-gal (20,000-L) hot-water holding tank fractured at a large automotive manufacturing plant. The tank was made from Type 304 austenitic stainless steel. The inner diameter of the tank displayed a macroscopic, web-like network of cracks that deceptively suggested intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... an environment ideal for microbial growth. In such an environment, stainless steel can be readily compromised. Additionally, the copper-rich residue provided secondary evidence that corrosive conditions existed through the water system. Due to the corrosive conditions and the location of the dishwasher...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... carbide zone and rich in iron and nickel and a continuous carbide network is formed in grain boundary in layer C ( Fig. 5 ). According to investigations of Bennet and Price [ 10 ], gas could diffuse into the wall and form the three different layers observed in the cross section of material. Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... stainless steel occurs because of the grain-boundary precipitation of chromium-rich carbides. The ball valve material was reported to be Z30C13, which is basically a martensitic stainless steel with an ultimate tensile strength of 830 MPa (120 ksi) and the yield strength of 635 MPa (90 ksi...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to 7,5:1) 7 . Similar considerations can be made for the niobium whose amount must be not smaller than eight to ten times the carbon content 16 . Examples of steels satisfying these conditions are the types AISI 321 and 347, the alloy 20 (high-nickel stainless steel) and the alloy Ni-Fe-Cr 825 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... deposits, such as calcium, silicon, zinc, sulfur, and aluminum. The silicon and calcium could have come from the calcium silicate-based insulation. Elements such as chromium, iron, nickel, and manganese were also present, probably in the form of oxides from the surface of the steel. No chlorides were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in metallographic sections and was analyzed by EDS in the SEM. Copper LMIE of austenitic and duplex stainless steels has been documented in the literature; no other reports of cracking during manufacturing or service were available. Stainless steel (as well as nickel and copper-nickel alloys) can suffer LMIE...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... precipitates. This increases the resistance to intergranular attack and to chloride-induced stress-corrosion cracking. 1 , 2 The annealing also removes the embrittling effects of alpha prime. Solution annealing, as in austenitic alloys, requires heating above 980 °C (1800 °F), high enough to dissolve Cr-rich...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... and high magnification in Figures 6 and 7 , respectively. Figure 6 shows the interior and exterior seam weld passes as well as extensive sub-surface cavitation. Examination at higher magnification revealed that the corrosion propagated into the base metal along bands rich in delta ferrite, giving...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... in nickel and iron ( Fig. 3 ). Similar depleted zones have been observed ( 11 , 12 , 13 ) in low-carbon 20%Cr austenitic steels and explained as the result of non-protective oxide film and low oxidation front velocities. Fig. 3 Line profiles for C, Cr, Mn and Ni taken across the oxide film...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Chromium Content of Chromium-Rich Layers in Magnetite Scales Table 1 Chromium Content of Chromium-Rich Layers in Magnetite Scales Source Chromium Content of the Chromium-Rich Layer Oxide grown on 1- 1 4 % Cr 1 2 % Mo steel 2 to 2.1% Oxide grown on 2- 1 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... , Embrittlement of a 5% Nickel High Strength Steel by Impurities and Their Effects on Hydrogen-Induced Cracking , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 9 , May 1978 , p 625 – 633 10.1007/BF02659919 30. Craig B.D. , A Fracture Topographical Feature Characteristic of Hydrogen Embrittlement , Corrosion , Vol...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steel. Carbon solubility is considerably lower, and chromium diffusion is faster in nickel-base alloys than in austenitic stainless steels; therefore, the nose in the carbide precipitation or sensitization curves is shifted to shorter times and higher temperatures. Significant heat-to-heat variations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis, metallographic analysis, and simulated-service tests. It provides case studies for the analysis of SCC service failures and their occurrence in steels, stainless steels, and commercial alloys of aluminum, copper, magnesium, and titanium. aluminum alloys austenitic stainless steel carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... localized corrosion of many stainless steels occurs in couples with copper or nickel and their alloys and with other more noble materials. However, couples of stainless and copper alloys are often used with impunity in freshwater cooling systems. Iron and steel tend to protect stainless steel in aqueous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) or less. At this rate and with proper design with adequate corrosion allowance, a carbon steel vessel will provide many years of low-maintenance service. For more costly materials, such as austenitic stainless steels and copper and nickel alloys, a maximum corrosion rate of 0.1 mm/year (4 mils/year...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... alloy base metal Embrittling metal Aluminum Hg, Ga, Na, In, Sn, Bi, Cd, Pb, Zn Copper Hg, Ga, In, Li, Bi, Cd, Pb Nickel Hg, In, Li, Sn, Pb, Zn, Ag Steels  Ferritic/martensitic Hg, Ga, In, Li, Sn, Cd, Pb, Zn, Te, Cu  Austenitic Hg, Li, Zn, Cu Titanium Hg, Cd, Ag, Au...