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nickel-chromium white irons

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of chromium and nickel were detected in the discolored area, along with lower amounts of iron, manganese, sodium, calcium, cobalt, and sulfur, in addition to the surrounding glass wool elements. Results of this limited evaluation showed the discoloration was caused by the presence of elevated levels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... found that could explain the failures. The chemical composition of this sample was: Element Composition, % Carbon 2.79 Manganese 0.77 Phosphorus 0.019 Sulfur 0.019 Silicon 0.90 Nickel 0.18 Chromium 25.2 Molybdenum 0.24 Iron rem Fig. 1 Failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... 0.060 Silicon 2.21 Nickel <0.05 Chromium 0.09 Molybdenum 0.04 Copper 0.55 Tin <0.02 Vanadium 0.05 Iron rem The carbon equivalent of the cracked casting was 3.99. These data indicate that both castings have a composition closer to class 40 than to class 30...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Metal Iron 52 40 1.0 Nickel 35 44 72.0 Chromium 9 11 20.0 Niobium 2 2 2.5 Manganese 2 2 3.0 Corrosion or Wear Deposits Results of analysis of the corrosion products present in some of the cracks are listed in Table 2 . Composition of corrosion products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... max Silicon 0.55 0.30–0.60 Nickel 1.03 0.75–1.00 Chromium 12.70 11.75–12.25 Molybdenum 0.32 0.25–0.35 Copper 1.95 1.40–2.00 (a) Supplier specification Comparison of the results with the specified composition presented in Table 1 indicates that the phosphorus...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., 316L stainless steel exposed to a flowing microbial culture of Citrobacter freundii in the laboratory was selectively colonized at grain boundaries ( Ref 39 , 40 ). This led to the local depletion of chromium and iron content relative to nickel in the subsurface region of the superficial oxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was chromium rich, whereas the inner portion was rich in iron and nickel. Fig. 4 Back-scattered image, along with spot analysis, across metal/oxide scale region of a grate bar. Area Composition, % Fe Cr Ni S Cl Ca Al Si 1 1.85 95.37 0.68 0.42 0.18 0.18 0.48 0.85 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, chromium, iron, and nickel. Integrating the area under the peaks and applying empirically derived sensitivity factors yields the following atomic concentration values: The ratio of chromium to iron is often used as an indication of the “goodness” of passivation ( Ref 17 , 18...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Hastelloy X nickel-base superalloy 1205 2200 1 HX (17Cr-66Ni-bal Fe) 1150 2100 1 (a) Seamless tube. (b) Electric resistance welded tube Iron oxides alone are not protective above 550 °C (1020 °F) ( Ref 5 ). Chromium, aluminum, and/or silicon assist in forming scales, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... amounts of nickel, silicon, sulfur, chromium, manganese, and zinc. Metallic copper was also visible during metallographic examination. Hardness Hardness of the transverse ring sections ranged from 73 to 80 HRB. These hardness values are consistent with the observed microstructure. The tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 0.36–0.56 0.2–0.8 Silicon 0.62–0.76 0.5–0.9 Manganese 0.52–0.61 0.4–1.2 Titanium + Zirconium 0.017 0.2 (max) Iron 0.28–0.44 0.5 (max) Nickel 0.06 0.2 (max) Zinc 0.10–0.17 0.2 (max) Lead 0.002 0.05 (max) Tin 0.0023 0.05 (max) Chromium 0.08 0.2 (max...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../brownish-black iron (III) oxides (goethite, magnetite, maghemite, hematite) 0.04–0.2 0.0016–0.008 Anaerobic corrosion (H + as electron acceptor) Pasty or dispersed white iron (II) carbonate (siderite) 0.002–0.01 (general corrosion) 0.00008–0.0004 (general corrosion) Anaerobic microbiologically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Tungsten 0.30 max 0.30 max 0.30 max Vanadium 0.10 max 0.10 max 0.10 max Niobium 0.30 max 0.30 max 0.30 max Chromium 0.50 max 0.50 max 0.50 max Phosphorus 0.02–0.05 0.02–0.05 0.02–0.05 Sulfur 0.02 max 0.02 max 0.02 max Iron bal bal bal (a) SG, spheroidal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Cavitation could have led to long-term damage even in a sound casting, although it did not appear to contribute to the fracture. Recommendations Casting practices should be implemented to avoid porosity, and an alloy austenitic cast iron (GGL NiCuCr 15 6 3) that has a higher chromium content...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., % Implant ASTM F-75 requirements Chromium 27.9 27.0–30.0 Molybdenum 6.11 5.0–7.0 Nickel 0.06 1.0 (max) Iron 0.24 0.75 (max) Carbon 0.245 0.35 (max) Silicon 0.68 1.0 (max) Manganes 0.32 1.0 (max) Cobalt … bal Quality control includes tensile testing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be calibrated with a material not only having a similar amount of the alloying element in question, but also having the same matrix element and a similar concentration of alloying element. For example, it may not be a good idea to use a nickel-base superalloy with 15% chromium as a calibration check for an iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... environments, the cast structure of a nickel weld may be anodic to the wrought parent metals. The combination of their passive surface with their inherent resistance places nickel-chromium alloys such as Inconel alloy 600 and Hastelloy alloy C-276 in more noble positions in the traditional galvanic series...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... contrast, it may be difficult to determine where the nickel plating ends and the surface begins, as shown in Fig. 3 (d). Figure 4 shows an example of ion-nitrided hot work die steel with a brittle white-etching iron nitride surface layer that is quite visible when mounted in a mineral-filled epoxy resin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are basically iron-chromium alloys that have a single-phase grain structure and contain at least 11% Cr. Larger amounts of chromium further improve corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance. As the chromium content increases, the alloys are increasingly subject to 500 °C (930 °F) embrittlement. Ductility...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...; see Table 2 . Correspondingly, the nickel content was significantly lower than in the bulk. In fact, the average Ni is less than required to stabilize the iron (austenite) structure. The combination supports the argument for preferential corrosion of the austenitic material in the pit...