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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... to determine their particular risk of operation. In addition to the operating procedures and instrumentation and control, their hazards analysis should consider both neutralizer sparger materials of construction and design features, particularly those associated with the potential trapping and confinement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... to be treated, either at individual residences, or by the water utility. Waters could be rendered non-pitting by raising their pH values to over 8 and neutralizing the free carbon dioxide. Aeration, or additions of caustic, soda ash, or lime could help resolve the problem. Neutralizing filters, which have also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Although field corrosion tests had indicated that type 316L stainless steel would be a suitable material for neutralization tanks, the vessels suffered severe corrosion when placed in service. Welded coupons of type 316L had been tested along with similar Alloy 20Cb® (UNS NO8020...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., Figures 1 and 2 . Sand deposits were found in the tubes. The pH of the river water varied from 7.5 to 8.3. In addition, sulphates are known to be present in the river water. All the tubes that were examined had the same hardness, 105 VHN (100g) (59 HRB equivalent). The wall thickness of all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses the failure analysis of several steel transmission pipeline failures, describes the causes and characteristics of specific pipeline failure modes, and introduces pipeline failure prevention and integrity management practices and methodologies. In addition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... and salts of organic acids, in addition to hydroxyl functionality. The discoloration was caused by localized rusting of the sink from prolonged exposure to a chloride containing substance. The appearance suggests that the substance may actually have been a drop of perspiration (sweat) from a factory worker...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... or passivated by a solution. The amount of oxygen that is locally present in the brine is particularly critical. A neutral hot chloride solution may locally activate the alloy, causing continuous pitting. Once the reaction has started, ferric chloride can be produced, which has an autoacceleration action...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... not come in contact with common plastic bags during storage or shipping because additives in the plastic can transfer to the sample and be detected with surface-sensitive tools. Clean plastic petri dishes (polystyrene or polypropylene are common), glass containers, and even plain white typing paper are all...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that none of the expected stresses are sufficient to explain the condition of the component (i.e., the designer correctly accommodated the anticipated stresses). In this case, the source of the additional stress may be unanticipated loads and possibly, inappropriate use. In this regard, the possibilities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the additional stress may be unanticipated loads and, possibly, inappropriate use. In this regard, the possibilities are many, such as operator overloading, unusual resonance vibration, or unexpected stress introduced as a result of assembly. The critical point is that the analyst must look at the overall...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... failure of the part. POM should not be selected for automotive applications where elevated temperatures and acidic environments can exist. If exposure to acid is suspected, sodium bicarbonate should be applied to neutralize the surrounding environment, followed by copious quantities of water, and repeated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... in.). Failure occurred where the tube passed through the refractory hearth (floor) of the furnace. Although the furnace atmosphere was neutral with respect to the work, it had a carburizing potential relative to the radiant tubes. Analysis (visual inspection, 250x spectroscopic examination of specimens etched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., additional facts need to be discussed. When a bearing of this type is loaded (note that the inner race which was attached to the superstructure was the failed member), one area on the ring is always loaded in tension and another area is always loaded in compression. Furthermore, it should be noted...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... additions. With the new generations of “black refractories,” which contain 7% or more carbon materials (mainly natural graphite), adding one or two metallic additions to act as “antioxidants” or to protect carbon is mandatory. The technical ceramics, on the other hand, constitute an ill-defined class...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-doped 1 1 4 Cr1Mo steels were higher than those without P additions and suggested that the presence of P at grain boundaries enhance the nucleation of grain boundary cavities while retarding their subsequent growth by reducing boundary self diffusion. Takasugi & Pope also reported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the fractured bars shown in figure 8 . (× 35). Fig. 10 Intergranular cracks and oxides adjacent to surface. (× 400). The possibility that hydrogen embrittlement may occur requires to be considered during welding operations. The presence of the usual de-oxidation additives to copper reduces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006919
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of failure criterion. Perhaps the most catastrophic failure associated with impact occurs when a plastic component shatters or at least fractures in a brittle manner. This event is usually intolerable, and every engineering precaution must be taken to avoid it. In addition to failure definition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of a material in the presence of a liquid or gas. Additives are either applied to materials to neutralize their corrosive abilities or to prevent an external corrosive environment from reaching the material. Anticorrosion additives can be a part of a coating formulation or can be used independently as surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) if there is moisture in the material. Even at neutral pHs, the elevated temperatures used for polymer molding or extrusion (175 to 250 °C, or 350 to 500 °F, or more) will cause hydrolytic degradation if there is moisture in the resin. Because of this, polymer resin manufacturers advise drying of the material just...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was then folded into the material during the forging operation. The part exhibited partial decarburization at the crack surface, indicating that it was oxidized during the heating or annealing operation. Austenitizing and quenching are done in a neutral atmosphere and would not produce this condition. Oxidation...