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needle-like martensite

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... fracture manufacturing defect chromium steel chevron marks needle-like martensite microhardness measurements case depth 30CrMnTi steel (chromium alloy steel) Background Workers at the locomotive assemble workshop reported that an abnormal sound was heard from the site of axle gearbox. Site...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in Fig. 6 is free of ferrite, thus approximately eutectoid; the microstructure consists of pearlite and martensite with remnants of austenite. Figure 7 reproduces the microstructure of a location with hyper-eutectoid carbon content. It consists of secondary cementite in the shape of long needles...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... a tempered zone to the microstructure of the core ( Fig. 9 ), which consists of fine-needled, low-annealed martensite with embedded regularly distributed fine carbides, which reinstates the conclusion drawn from the fracture surface that the heat-treatment was done properly. The failure of the rings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Several surgical tool failures were analyzed to understand why they occur and how to prevent them. The study included drills, catheters, and needles subjected to the rigors of biomedical applications such as corrosive environments, high stresses, sterilization, and improper cleaning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Characteristics The nital-etched microstructures of all failed roll samples showed martensite (dark gray to black) with retained austenite in needle interstices, carbide (white), and graphite phases. The carbide phase was of eutectic type and appeared in continuous networks. Typical micrographs of nital...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... way toward problem solving. Bearing cups are assembled with needle rollers and are used in bearing in universal joint kit. The product quality requirement includes high wear resistance at surface and toughness at core. During assembly of the bearing in end yoke, bearing cup failure has occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Microstructural Studies The microstructure of the cross section of the boiler tube at the fire side at or near the punch marks indicates a fine lamellar pearlitic or needle-shaped residual martensitic structure. The microstructure is synonymous with rapid cooling at the punch locations ( Figs. 8 , 9...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by the rotation of these elements. Bearing raceways that conform closely to the shape of the rolling elements are normally used to house the rolling elements.The rolling elements are usually positioned within the bearing by a retainer, cage, or separator; in ball bearings of the filling-slot type and in needle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., then the situation must be explained. Sometimes it is appropriate to speculate on which is thought to be more likely, as long as the assumptions underlying the speculations are documented: Crack tips often provide more information than wide-open cracks. Look for residual-stress indicators when sectioning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... machines or in machines made from welded webs) To increase the load ratings of a given solution, one makes use of the line contact (rollers, needles) instead of the point contact (balls). That increase generally leads to a decrease of the maximum reachable speed limits due to the overall internal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... worm-gear set, the worm is constructed so that it resembles an hourglass in profile. Such a worm partly envelops the gear, and its threads engage the teeth of the gear throughout the entire length of the worm. The teeth of both the worm and the gear have straight-sided profiles like those of rack teeth...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... properties (for example, most aluminum alloys) are likely to suffer a further type of damage in fretting. Fig. 21 Cross-sectional view of a white layer of martensite produced by fretting of a carbon steel connecting rod. Axial stress, 0 to 380 MPa (0 to 55 ksi); contact stress, 40 MPa (6 ksi...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... if continued for a large proportion of the normal life of a material. However, this is not true for a high overstress. Advantages and Limitations The stress-life approach seems best applied to components that look like the test samples and are approximately the same size (this satisfies the similitude...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the component, placing the hot spot at the surface under compressive stress is beneficial. This can be achieved by surface treatments such as nitriding, carburizing (case hardening), shot peening, needling, surface rolling, and mechanical overstressing. When these treatments are properly applied, the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fretting is a wear phenomenon that occurs between two mating surfaces; initially, it is adhesive in nature, and vibration or small-amplitude oscillation is an essential causative factor. Fretting generates wear debris, which oxidizes, leading to a corrosion-like morphology...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cast iron low-alloy steel malleable irons pressure die casting semisolid casting squeeze casting FAILURES OF CASTINGS, like the failures of wrought materials, can occur from service conditions, improper design and/or materials selection, manufacturing deficiencies, or a combination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to perform without failure. Castings are integral parts of many components and, like wrought components, they rarely fail to perform their intended functions. The failures that do occur result from service conditions, improper design and/or materials selection, manufacturing deficiencies, potential...