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near-net shaping

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... plain carbon and low-alloy medium-carbon steel forgings. Applications Closed-die forging is one method for producing near-net-shape parts. A steel billet is heated to forging temperature (1100 to 1260 °C, or 2000 to 2300 °F) and placed into successive performs in the bottom impression of the die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006868
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of friction, easier processing or flow enhancement, colorants, structural enhancement, and the like. In many plastic manufacturing processes, the finished part can be at, or very near to, the final net shape, the final color, with the specified surface finish, containing features for inspection, containing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the vicinity of a weld near the flange. Sometimes the cracks ran along coarse marks produced during the grinding process ( Fig. 1 ). The frequency of this type of failure caused concern, because such failures could lead to catastrophic rupture. Testing Procedure and Results Surface Examination Scanning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Following an accident at Napp Technologies on April 21, 1995, OSHA requested us to evaluate a large capacity, Vee-shaped, blender Figures 1 , 2 in which a mixture had reacted and started a fire that destroyed most of the plant. Both OSHA and the EPA investigated the accident and published a joint...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... selection is just one part of this overall design process, which may involve a complex set of relationships regarding product function, shape, materials, and manufacturing process ( Fig. 1 , Ref 1 ). In the past, engineering design was performed as a sequential procedure, with the material decisions made...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Materials selection is just one part of this overall design process, which may involve a complex set of relationships regarding product function, shape, materials, and manufacturing process ( Fig. 1 ) ( Ref 1 ). In the past, engineering design was performed as a sequential procedure, with the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in components are also discussed. The component stresses determined by analysis usually lie in directions defined by the shape of the component geometry, for example, along major axes or perpendicular to major axes. These stresses may not be the maximum ones, so they must then be examined to find the actual...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in directions defined by the shape of the component geometry, for example, along major axes or perpendicular to major axes. These stresses may not be the maximum ones, so they must then be examined to find the actual maxima to be used in a failure criterion. These maxima are determined by taking stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... surface of the spring, which occurred three active turns from the bottom. The fracture started near the inside diameter at a small angle just off the line perpendicular to the spring axis, as shown in Fig. 2 . The fracture plane was near normal to the wire axis. The crack progressed across the diameter...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., straightening, sizing, etc.). These metalworking operations have a two-fold purpose. First, they are obviously designed to produce parts with the desired configuration. Secondly, metalworking can develop a final shape with internal soundness and improved mechanical properties by: Improved internal quality...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and summarily impact the eight screws during operation. The rotation was of a reversed bending type, depending on the direction of the load (up or down). Fig. 3 Motor adapter plate and the location of the top of the plate during installation. The elliptical shape of the holddown screws is evident...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... However, even a small amount of shrinkage porosity formed near the surface can sometimes lead to failure. Consider, for example, a Y-shaped casting with a small included angle. If a small fillet is used between the arms of the casting, there is a thin, sharp edge of sand at the junction, which is heated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 20 shows the fracture surface area near the fracture origin of a PC specimen after stress rupture. The mirror zone appears in the lower central portion of Fig. 20 ( Ref 23 ) approximately in the shape of an ellipse. Fig. 20 Polycarbonate stress rupture fracture surface showing mirror zone...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... observed in the mirror region when the specimen is viewed in visible light. Figure 18 shows the fracture surface area near the fracture origin of a PC specimen after Izod impact. The mirror zone appears in the lower central portion of Fig. 18 in the shape of an ellipse. Fig. 18 Polycarbonate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and the failure of the weld in service ( Ref 1 ). The first type, often identified as weld cracking, occurs near the time of welding and may be present as soon as the weld cools (usually within a day or two). Regardless of when weld cracking occurs, it results from internal stresses. Visual or nondestructive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... points back to the crack initiation site and is created under conditions of rapid crack propagation. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 7 Chevrons on the fracture surface of an induction-hardened axle fabricated from 1541 steel. The V-shaped chevrons point back to an initiation site marked by the arrow...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., crack-growth rates can vary widely with variations in loading parameters, such as stress state, stress-intensity range, and stress-wave shape and frequency. For example, crack size and geometry may alter the electrochemical environment near the crack tip and consequently change the crack-growth rate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., and siphons from Lake Havasu to just south of Tucson, Arizona. 1 Much of the system is open channel, but inverted siphons are used to cross river beds. The siphons were manufactured and installed between 1975 and 1980 at a cost near $49 million. Six siphons are made from prestressed concrete pipe units...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Unless otherwise specified, data analysis is based on the assumption that a near-random grain orientation distribution is sampled in a homogeneous and isotropic material ( Ref 3 ). Although a detailed discussion is beyond the scope of this article, XRD techniques can also be used for the measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be as simple as possible while still meeting the requirements of the design specification. Reducing the number of components, appropriately using components to do more than one function, and promoting the use of near-net shape manufacturing techniques can help achieve simplicity. The failure analysis...