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near-net shape processing

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Materials selection is just one part of this overall design process, which may involve a complex set of relationships regarding product function, shape, materials, and manufacturing process ( Fig. 1 , Ref 1 ). In the past, engineering design was performed as a sequential procedure, with the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... component. Materials selection is just one part of this overall design process, which may involve a complex set of relationships regarding product function, shape, materials, and manufacturing process ( Fig. 1 ) ( Ref 1 ). In the past, engineering design was performed as a sequential procedure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... This stagnant or nonuniform material flow was caused by mismatch of the forging dies, which allowed some areas to he worked and others to remain stagnant. This lack of work at forging temperature produced rapid grain growth. Most Probable Cause Closed-die forging is one method for producing near-net...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of a weld near the flange. Sometimes the cracks ran along coarse marks produced during the grinding process ( Fig. 1 ). The frequency of this type of failure caused concern, because such failures could lead to catastrophic rupture. Surface Examination Metallography Chemical Analysis/Identification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in components are also discussed. The component stresses determined by analysis usually lie in directions defined by the shape of the component geometry, for example, along major axes or perpendicular to major axes. These stresses may not be the maximum ones, so they must then be examined to find the actual...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in directions defined by the shape of the component geometry, for example, along major axes or perpendicular to major axes. These stresses may not be the maximum ones, so they must then be examined to find the actual maxima to be used in a failure criterion. These maxima are determined by taking stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... as a mechanism by which the reactions were initiated. All three of these mechanisms are consistent with eye-witness reports of visible reactions (smoke puffs) near the top surface of the mixture being processed (this is the general location of the agitator bar and spray nozzle). The lack of evidence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) is near the compression curl Fig. 63 Top view of boat and swivel bracket section showing fracture plane Fig. 64 Near crack-tip deformation and fracture processes. The stress singularity at the free surface of a crack is relieved by crack blunting and plastic flow or by microcracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surface containing both IG and TG fracture.) Preferential cracking in (or near) the grain boundaries may be related to various types of IG mechanisms (which may be diffusion-related processes such as creep void formation, hydrogen void formation, or impurity segregation in the grain boundaries). Various...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the fracture surface area near the fracture origin of a PC specimen after Izod impact. The mirror zone appears in the lower central portion of Fig. 18 in the shape of an ellipse. The lenses were specified to be unfilled PC, which exhibits glass-like clarity. The metal frames were a custom designer series...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... as part of the extraction process. Fig. 30 The crack propagated away from the toe and into the disc near the cutouts. Fig. 31 Macroetched cross section through a portion of the cracked connection. A gap in the weld root can be seen. All of the cracking is contained within the disc...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... • Multiple intergranular fissures covered with reaction scale• Grain faces may show porosity Metallographic inspection, 50–1000× (cross section) • Grain distortion and flow near fracture• Irregular, transgranular fracture • Little distortion evident• Intergranular or transgranular• May relate to notches...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and bending stresses can occur in a tube produced by drawing, heat treating, and straightening operations. By varying the severity of these operations, it is possible to produce tubes with very low residual stresses or with very high residual stresses that are near the yield strength of the metal. In other...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of the spring, which occurred three active turns from the bottom. The fracture started near the inside diameter at a small angle just off the line perpendicular to the spring axis, as shown in Fig. 2 . The fracture plane was near normal to the wire axis. The crack progressed across the diameter until reaching...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the casting process. The existence of casting discontinuities does not, in and of itself, indicate that casting performance in service will be affected. Equally important are the size, location, and distribution of these discontinuities. Those discontinuities that are small and located near the center...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of failure is the first element to be discovered. The mode of failure falls under the “what” of the failure. Once the mode is known, the discovery net widens as the root physical cause is sought. The root physical cause is the “how” of the failure. However, the root physical cause of failure is rarely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... into the surface of the bar. The net effect is approximately the same as far as imperfections are concerned. Chevrons are internal flaws named for their shape. They often result from excessively severe cold drawing and are even more likely to occur during extrusion operations. (These are called bursts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with imposition of alternating stresses below the net section yield strength. Columns made from materials that exhibit this behavior can fail by lateral displacement at the midspan (buckling) under stresses much lower than those predicted by classical design. Table 1 presents the results of a test in which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... martensite interspersed with some austenite (light-etching) areas, Fig. 11a . On the other hand, the microstructure of the case from the failed valve contained a much greater amount of retained austenite, especially near the surface ( Fig. 11b ). In addition, some patches of untempered martensite were found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in a boiler tube caused by rapid overheating Fig. 12 Typical microstructures of carbon steel boiler tube that ruptured as a result of rapid overheating. (a) Elongated grains near rupture resulting from rapid overheating below the recrystallization temperature. (b) Mixed structure near rupture...