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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A high-density polyethylene (HDPE) natural gas distribution pipe (Grade PE 3306) failed by slow, stable crack growth while in residential service. The leak occurred at a location where a squeeze clamp had been used to close the pipe during maintenance. Failure analysis showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract During natural gas drilling in the EMS region in 1956, considerable numbers of longitudinal cracks and transverse fractures occurred in the connecting pieces of the bore rods. The connectors were screwed onto the rods by means of a fine thread and tightly joined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract A welded natural gas line of 400 mm OD and 9 mm wall thickness made of unalloyed steel with 0.22C had to be removed from service after four months because of a pipe burst. Metallographic examination showed the pipe section located next to the gas entrance was permeated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract Wet natural gas was dried by being passed through a carbon steel vessel that contained a molecular-sieve drying agent. The drying agent became saturated after several hours in service and was regenerated by a gas that was heated to 290 to 345 deg C in a salt-bath heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Inhibited admiralty brass (UNS C44300) condenser tubes used in a natural-gas-fired cogeneration plant failed during testing. Two samples, one from a leaking tube and the other from an on leaking tube, were examined. Chemical analyses were conducted on the tubes and corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A high-speed pinion gear shaft, part of a system that compresses natural gas, was analyzed to determine why it failed. An abnormal wear pattern was observed on the shaft surface beneath the inner race of the support bearings. Material from the shaft had transferred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Several cases of embrittlement failure are analyzed, including liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) of an aluminum alloy pipe in a natural gas plant, solid metal-induced embrittlement (SMIE) of a brass valve in an aircraft engine oil cooler, LME of a cadmium-plated steel screw...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract A natural gas pipeline explosion and subsequent fire significantly altered the pipeline steel microstructure, obscuring in part the primary cause of failure, namely, coating breakdown at a local hard spot in the steel. Chemical analysis was made on pieces cut from the portion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract The repeated failure of rubber-covered rotors and volute liners in a flue gas desulfurization system after conversion from lime slurry reagent to limestone slurry reagent was investigated. The pump was a horizontal 50 x 65 mm (2 x 2.5 in.) Galiger pump with a split cast iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A welded ferritic stainless steel heat exchanger cracked prior to service. The welding filler metal was identified as an austenitic stainless steel and the joining method as gas tungsten arc welding. Investigation (visual inspection, SEM images, 5.9x images, and 8.9x/119x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and oxidation Background A 76 mm (3 in.) diam stainless steel tube that was used as a heat shield and water nozzle support in a hydrogen gas plant quench pot failed in a brittle manner. Applications Natural gas and steam are reacted at high temperatures of 870 to 925 °C (1600 to 1700 °F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... removed from the furnace, visually inspected, and rotated 120° every three weeks to ensure that no single location was overheated for a prolonged period of time. The pots were fired by four natural-gas burners, which were mounted tangentially, with two burners located approximately one-third...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... two half-pipe headers on a finned plate heat exchanger in a natural gas liquids plant after 13 years of service. A 28 cm (11 in.) long crack was found in one 6351-T6 aluminum alloy, NPS 4, Schedule 40 header, and another partial crack was subsequently found by ultrasonic inspection. Chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to a steam turbine (ST) to produce electricity and/or to be used in another process. Natural gas is normally used for fuel, although some CTs are fired with oil or are designed for both natural gas and oil fuels. Supplemental duct firing with a variety of fuels can also be used. Combined cycle power plants...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Turbines Vanes 7075-T6 AMS 4126 UNS A97075 Fatigue fracture Background An AMS 4126 (7075-T6) aluminum alloy impeller from a radial inflow turbine fractured during commissioning. Applications The turbine is used to derive power at a natural gas letdown station. A finite-element model...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... approval for publication of this article. References References 1. Institute of Oil & Gas Production Technology, Oil and Natural gas Corporation Ltd. : Technical Manual for Production Operations (Internal Company Document) , pp. 279 – 285 . Institute of Oil & Gas Production Technology...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of pipe and are therefore secondary to the main fracture. A propagating fracture in a gas pipeline can be extensive because of the relatively slow pressure decay associated with the compressed natural gas. Historically, in the early 1950s in the gas testing of pipelines, there were several cleavage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of aluminum alloy piping in a natural gas processing plant ( Ref 6 ). As-produced natural gas from the wells was cryogenically treated to remove higher-value heavier hydrocarbons, called natural gas liquids (NGL), from the methane. Mercury at the parts per billion (ppb) level was produced with the natural gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...). Nozzle metal temperature was estimated to be 760 to 815 °C (1400 to 1500 °F). The gas turbine was fueled with natural gas. Both the fuel and the inlet air were filtered. The nozzle were made of X-40, a cobalt-base alloy, and aluminide coated. Specimen Selection Three nozzle segments were submitted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... this failure analysis for determining the origin of these defects ( Fig. 1 ). Working condition of wellhead flow control valve body Table 1 Working condition of wellhead flow control valve body Maximum working pressure 1100 psi Maximum working temperature 90 °C Natural gas H 2 S content...