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multiple-pass welds

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the conclusion that the failure was caused by SCC due to stress, sensitization, and environment. Recommendations included replacing all pipe sections and installing them using low-heat-input, multiple-pass welding procedures. Heat affected zone Integranular fracture Piping 304 UNS S30400 Joining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... welding, immediately prior to heat treatment. Multiple-pass arc welds secured the carbon-steel flanges to the Ni-Cr-Mo-V alloy steel tubes. Investigation (visual inspection, metallographic analysis, and evaluation of the fabrication history and the analysis data) supported the conclusion that the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0048087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... the electrode adjacent to the weld. A relatively broad HAZ containing tempered and untempered martensite was present at each of the weld beads because of multiple-pass welding. The rail and beam both exhibited normal as-rolled steel structures with no irregularities. Chemical analysis revealed the rail...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... geometry (included angle or root opening too small) Improper backgouging (narrow or shallow) Unbalanced heat input To prevent cracking in multiple-pass groove or fillet welds: Increase bead size of the first pass by using lower travel speed, a short arc, and an uphill (∼5°) welding mode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and Fractographic Examination Diffuser Intake Flange Stereo examination of transverse sections of the diffuser intake subassembly revealed a single-pass weld made from the external side of the diffuser assembly. Examination of multiple sections showed several microcracks near the fusion boundary with type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... elongated ferrite bands such as those shown. Etched with 2% nital. 100x. (b) Multiple-pass manual shielded metal arc weld in a test specimen, which resisted molten-zinc corrosion and which shows a refined microstructure. Etchant and magnification same as (a) After being weighed, the specimens were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... concentrators significantly reduce the fatigue resistance of the socket-welded joint. On the other hand, high quality root passes limit both the number and size of preexisting flaws in the weld root and produce a joint with optimum fatigue resistance. The choice of the welding process is important...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was made with six passes by using low-hydrogen electrodes equivalent to E60-18 without preheat. The root pass was made with 2.4-mm ( 3 32 -in.) electrodes, subsequent passes with 3.6-mm ( 9 64 -in.) electrodes. The completed weld was visually inspected and not postweld heat treated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... passes and E7018 for the cover passes. The equalizer line had been in service for 18 months and was used to transfer alkaline kraft liquor at approximately 175 °C (350 °F). Circumstances Leading to Failure Several cracks in and next to the pipe welds leaked within 18 months of service. No abnormal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... connection plate was not welded to the bottom tension flange. However, the most extensive cracking is in the negative-moment regions of continuous bridges where the connection plate was not welded to the top flange of the girder. Reaction diaphragm plates were also passed through box-girder webs ( Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... selection than carbon steels because of the deeper-hardening characteristics of alloy steels. The most encompassing cause of failures of lifting equipment is poor manufacturing, assembly, and maintenance practices. Inferior machining, defective welds, residual welding stresses, misalignment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was attributed to the orientation and morphology of the columnar weld grains, which in this case offered a path of lesser resistance. Root welds showed more equiaxed microstructures as compared to the primarily columnar microstructrue of cover passes. Chemical Analysis/Identification Material and Weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... cracking where UT had indicated there was subsurface cracking. As shown in Figure 4 , cracking was evident in the weld beads directly below the cap pass, which is situated at the top of the picture. The cracking follows the columnar grain boundaries in the weld metal. The microstructure of a multiple pass...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature, a function of the operating boiler pressure. Within the convection passes, the flue-gas temperature is further reduced by the superheating or reheating of steam in superheaters and reheaters. To extract more heat and to improve overall thermal efficiency, an economizer preheats the boiler...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., multiple-pass welding procedures. When stress corrosion is identified as the mechanism of a failure, the proper corrective action can be either a reduction in stress (or stress concentration) or an alteration of the environment. When the cause of failure is inadvertent concentration of a corrodent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... gradients, indicating inconsistency from one weld to the next. Some welds actually contained more passes than others, which had a definite effect on residual stresses. The outer shroud welds did not exhibit any sharp hardness gradients through the transition zone. The microhardness values indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A solution containing 50 to 70% calcium chloride (pH 7.5 to 8.5) was concentrated by evaporation in a brick-lined vessel by passing steam at a pressure of 15 atmospheres through a system of heating coils made of austenitic stainless steel X 10 Cr-Ni-Mo-Ti 18 12 (Material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the length of the roll, the width of the felt belt as it passes over the roll, and the nominal cross-sectional dimensions of the roll. The guide rolls themselves are manufactured from what would otherwise be seamless carbon steel pipe. The governing standard for this product is ASTM A106, “Standard...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the weld are shown in Fig. 7 . The joint had apparently been made in two passes, but the root pass was not always centered over the joint. There was also some misalignment of the head to the shell because of radial displacement of the shell and head centerlines. This resulted in excessive clearances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and qualify individual welders. Indications of brittle fracture associated with a weld can be assessed by using a bend test. Often, weld-related failures preclude the opportunity to perform bend testing, because the fracture generally passes through the weld, the HAZ, or the base metal adjacent...