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multiaxial testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... uniaxial tension tests. Because most real-world structures and components are typically subjected to more complex multiaxial stress states rather than constant uniaxial load, it is important to be able to predict the creep deformation and rupture behavior under multiaxial stress condition using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... at room temperature using stress-controlled fatigue tests in axial (tension-compression) and torsion loading conditions at stress ratios of R = −1 and R = 0. However, multiaxial fatigue data correlations were not successful using the Sines or Crossland criteria, especially for mean stress effect under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (or cycles to failure) in a component, the fatigue driving force and resistance parameters must be well understood. As such, geometry, material properties, and accurate characterization of the applied loading are required. Furthermore, fatigue test data that describe material behavior as a function of stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Nickel 0.13 NR Chromium 0.17 NR Molybdenum 0.04 NR Copper 0.10 NR (a) NR, no requirement Results of tensile testing Table 2 Results of tensile testing Property Plate A515 grade 70 Yield strength (0.2% offset), MPa (ksi) 400 (58.2) 262 (38.0) (min...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the type, sequence, magnitude, and number of the fluctuating (multiaxial) stresses often in combination with complex environmental influences (temperature, corrosion, wear). These factors complicate the laboratory simulation of actual application conditions and often require full-sized component tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006919
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., extension, e , is approximately equal to engineering strain, ε.) Fig. 6 Strain-rate and temperature dependence of yield strength for polybutylene terephthalate Fig. 7 Impact test of a polycarbonate box section Fig. 8 Stress-strain curves for rubber-modified polycarbonate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... constructed from family of creep curves at strain, ε′. (c) Isochronous curve constructed from family of creep curves at time, t′ Fig. 10 A frequency sweep test on Polycarbonate under room temperature (25 °C or 77 °F). Storage Modulus (E′) and Loss Modulus (E″) were plotted against frequency...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Mechanical testing is an evaluative tool used by the failure analyst to collect data regarding the macro- and micromechanical properties of the materials being examined. This article provides information on a few important considerations regarding mechanical testing that the failure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the effects of load frequency and temperature, material condition, and manufacturing practices on fatigue strength. It provides information on subsurface discontinuities, including gas porosity, inclusions, and internal bursts as well as on corrosion fatigue testing to measure rates of fatigue-crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Experimental work obtained results consistent with Cottrell’s model using MgO ( Ref 17 ) and in iron ( Ref 18 ). As Ref 4 indicates, the work reported in Ref 13 supports such a model of dislocation interaction to create a cleavage nucleus. Specimens tested at 77 K could be made to flow plastically...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with Cottrell's model using MgO ( Ref 17 ) and in iron ( Ref 18 ). As Ref 4 indicates, the work reported in Ref 13 supports such a model of dislocation interaction to create a cleavage nucleus. Specimens tested at 77 K could be made to flow plastically or to fail in a brittle manner, depending on specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a constrained multiaxial state of tension a small distance below the bottom of the notch. The force is applied dynamically by a free-falling pendulum of known initial potential energy. The important dimensions of interest for these tests include the notch angle, the notch depth, the notch tip radius, the depth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... section deliberately loaded with a lateral force (upper arrow). Source: Ref 4 . (b) Medium-length tube tested to buckling instability on special-purpose-designed test machine. Source: Ref 3 The buckling load depends only on the dimensions of the part and the modulus of elasticity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the flanges and web of the side-rail extrusion. Hardness tests using a portable hardness tester, metallographic examination, and tensile tests of specimens from the buckled side rails were conducted. All results agreed with the typical properties reported for aluminum alloy 6063-T6 extrusions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 51 12.2 Source: Ref 1 , 2 Fig. 9 Surface microcracking network developed on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene material due to ultraviolet exposure. Courtesy of Engineering Systems, Inc. Fig. 10 Multiaxial cracks in polypropylene due to ultraviolet exposure. Courtesy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... relationship. These initial experiments by Trouton and Phillips were performed at room temperature. In 1910, Andrade ( Ref 3 ) furthered the study of creep and even studied the effect of temperature, performing a series of tests at 162 °C (323 °F). Andrade’s experiments also revealed the importance of running...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... that the presence of nonmetallic inclusions initiated the shell crack in this rail. Similar defects were observed over 30 years ago by Cramer on rail samples tested in the laboratory [ 5 ]. Fig. 10 A side view of the shell crack in rail 5-1 (75×). Fig. 11 Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis inside...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... stress tests. Another alternative commonly used when multiaxial stresses are of interest is a pin load method, where a tapered pin of controlled dimensions is inserted through a hole. A defined pin geometry can allow for constant strain tests, and constant stress tests can be conducted by the application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and provides information on physics and testing of rolling-contact fatigue. Processes commonly used to produce bearings for demanding applications are also covered. coatings Hertzian contact theory rolling-contact fatigue rolling-element bearings surface-initiated fatigue wear ROLLING-CONTACT...