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multiaxial loading

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... multiaxial cyclic loading often produces additional strain hardening, which is not usually observed under proportional loading conditions. The reason for the additional hardening is the interaction of slip planes, because many more slip planes are active during nonproportional loading due to the change...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a description of the microscale models and mechanisms for deformation and fracture. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are discussed for various specimen geometries and loading conditions. The article reviews the general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and fracture. Next, the mechanisms of void nucleation and void coalescence are briefly described. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are then discussed for various specimen geometries (smooth cylindrical and prismatic) and loading conditions (e.g., tension compression...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... -ratios and for irregular loading, the reaction to complex microcracks, the response to single overloads, the crack closure effects, and the behavior under multiaxial loading still provide significant challenges. Reference 11 and Fatigue and Fracture , Volume 19 of the ASM Handbook , 1996, cover...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... models are used, because it enables the implementation of strain-based damage models using the same engineering concept of time to rupture. Fig. 5 Schematic uniaxial constant-load creep curve showing the Monkman-Grant strain and its relationship with the Omega parameter Multiaxiality...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... had considerable success. However, the treatment of short cracks, the propagation of cracks for negative R -ratios and for irregular loading, crack closure effects, and multiaxial loadings provide significant challenges. Reference 4 and Fatigue and Fracture , Volume 19 of the ASM Handbook , cover...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Distortion failure occurs when a structure or component is deformed so that it can no longer support the load it was intended to carry. Every structure has a load limit beyond which it is considered unsafe or unreliable. Estimation of load limits is an important aspect of design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with a functional failure. Then, a more general consideration of distortion in failure analysis is introduced. Several common aspects of failure by distortion are discussed and suitable examples of distortion failures are presented for illustration. The article provides information on methods to compute load limits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... as a perturbation from the shell crack under cyclic loading and is constrained to develop as an embedded flaw in the early stages of growth because the crack is impeded at the gage side and surface of the rail head by compressive longitudinal stresses. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis Rails (railroad) Shell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by acting as mechanical fuses. Stress directors in helicopter gearing are also designed so that if gear tooth fracture occurs, only half the tooth breaks off. This leaves the other half of the gear tooth to carry the load, simultaneously creating sufficient vibration to warn the pilot of imminent failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... project. Frequently, principal stresses and maximum shear stresses are important to the designer because both are used in common failure expressions to calculate maximum load capability (e.g. multiaxial yield criteria). One failure mode theory is the Rankine (or maximum normal stress) criterion, where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... techniques and discusses the advantages and limitations of each technique when used in failure analysis. The focus is on various types of static load testing, hardness testing, and impact testing. The testing types covered include uniaxial tension testing, uniaxial compression testing, bend testing, hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the multiaxial stress–strain state under loading. Successful implementation of these damage models requires the determination of existing load conditions in the potential fatigue location of the die, reliable fatigue data at required process conditions, and the accuracy and reliability of numerical values...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... crack initiation at surface pits from corrosion, cyclic loading in a corrosive environment ( stress-corrosion fatigue ) and elastic buckling. Elastic buckling may cause parts to contact, causing seizure of a rotating system, but it may also lead to plastic buckling and ultimately to fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-, micro-, and macroscale structure. The combination of alloy composition, microstructure, macrostructure (segregation, banding, and fibering), service loading conditions (monotonic, cyclic, uniaxial, multiaxial, and so forth), service environment (chemically aggressive, low temperature, and high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis should be specified when damaged components: Experience static in-service loads that are a significant fraction of the maximum allowable equivalent stress (stress concentrations, overloaded) Distort or form cracks without applied loads Are placed in corrosive environments (stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that are vulnerable to bulk creep damage typically are subjected to uniform loading and uniform temperature distribution during service. The life of such a component is related to the creep-rupture properties, and the type of failure is referred to as stress rupture or creep rupture. Stress or creep rupture is likely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., which eventually leads to material removal. The alternating stress field in RCF is either pure rolling (e.g., rolling-element bearings) or rolling-sliding (gear tooth loading). The distinction between these two is comprised of the existence of gross sliding between mating parts, because microslip...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... evolution is useful for understanding the local fracture processes at lower length scales and their contributions to the global fracture. Such data are required for development of internal state variables-based predictive fracture models that are applicable under multiaxial loading conditions ( Ref 58 , 59...