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multiaxial loading

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a description of the microscale models and mechanisms for deformation and fracture. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are discussed for various specimen geometries and loading conditions. The article reviews the general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for deformation and fracture. Next, the mechanisms of void nucleation and void coalescence are briefly described. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are then discussed for various specimen geometries (smooth cylindrical and prismatic) and loading conditions (e.g., tension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... -ratios and for irregular loading, the reaction to complex microcracks, the response to single overloads, the crack closure effects, and the behavior under multiaxial loading still provide significant challenges. Reference 11 and Fatigue and Fracture , Volume 19 of the ASM Handbook , 1996, cover...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... had considerable success. However, the treatment of short cracks, the propagation of cracks for negative R -ratios and for irregular loading, crack closure effects, and multiaxial loadings provide significant challenges. Reference 4 and Fatigue and Fracture , Volume 19 of the ASM Handbook , cover...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... forms as a perturbation from the shell crack under cyclic loading and is constrained to develop as an embedded flaw in the early stages of growth because the crack is impeded at the gage side and surface of the rail head by compressive longitudinal stresses. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis Rails...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... material, and the idealized material assumed in limit analysis. All have the same yield strength. Fig. 2 Buckled flange (lower arrow) of an extruded aluminum section deliberately loaded with a lateral force (upper arrow). Source: Ref 3 . Fig. 3 Aluminum alloy 6063-T6 extension-ladder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). Cyclic strain accumulation, or ratcheting, requires that a part be stressed by steady-state loading, either uniaxial or multiaxial, and that a cyclically varying strain in a direction other than the direction of principal stress be superimposed on the part. In ratcheting, an oscillating load or a cyclic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by acting as mechanical fuses. Stress directors in helicopter gearing are also designed so that if gear tooth fracture occurs, only half the tooth breaks off. This leaves the other half of the gear tooth to carry the load, simultaneously creating sufficient vibration to warn the pilot of imminent failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... project. Frequently, principal stresses and maximum shear stresses are important to the designer because both are used in common failure expressions to calculate maximum load capability (e.g. multiaxial yield criteria). One failure mode theory is the Rankine (or maximum normal stress) criterion, where...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... relationship between maximum stress–strain conditions and the number of cycles to initiation of crack. These damage models are uniaxial and it is difficult to handle how process parameters and design changes will affect the multiaxial stress–strain state under loading. Successful implementation of these damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... testing techniques and discusses the advantages and limitations of each technique when used in failure analysis. The focus is on various types of static load testing, hardness testing, and impact testing. The testing types covered include uniaxial tension testing, uniaxial compression testing, bend...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... crack initiation at surface pits from corrosion, cyclic loading in a corrosive environment ( stress-corrosion fatigue ) and elastic buckling. Elastic buckling may cause parts to contact, causing seizure of a rotating system, but it may also lead to plastic buckling and ultimately to fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that are applicable under multiaxial loading conditions ( Ref 58 , 59 ). However, the internal quantitative fractographic parameters can be estimated by using the same stereological methods that are available for characterization of 3D microstructures from metallographic sections and projections. Additional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Fig. 17 Isothermal diagram showing the sequence of carbide formation on tempering of normalized 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Source: Ref 22 Fig. 3 Stages of creep deformation. (a) Strain curve for the three stages of creep under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) Micrograph. Source: Ref 53 Fig. 20 Applied bending load and number of cycles to failure, R = −1, for Waspaloy specimen. Source: Ref 53 Fig. 26 Comparison of residual stress on the inner diameter of shot-peened coil springs in new and used conditions using x-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-sliding contact, which eventually leads to material removal. The alternating stress field in RCF is either pure rolling (e.g., rolling-element bearings) or rolling-sliding (gear tooth loading). The distinction between these two is comprised of the existence of gross sliding between mating parts, because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in direction consistent Dull, fibrous fracture Shear lips Little or no distortion Flat fracture Bright or coarse texture, crystalline, grainy Rays or chevrons point to origin Flat progressive zone with beach marks Overload zone consistent with applied loading direction...