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molten salt corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A fused-salt electrolytic-cell pot containing a molten eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium chlorides and operating at melt temperatures from 500 to 650 deg C (930 to 1200 deg F) exhibited excessive corrosion after two months of service. The pot was a welded cylinder...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the molten salts may have been responsible for the severe corrosive attack and chromium depletion, particularly in the grain boundaries, in the general area where failure occurred. Fig. 1 Specimen from an RA 330 alloy salt pot that failed because of intergranular corrosion and chromium depletion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... through the furnace. Metallographic and chemical analyses have clearly established that the grate bar degradation was primarily caused by hot corrosion by molten salts. The molten salt destroyed the ability of the material to maintain a protective oxide scale as a barrier to further reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... versatile materials that resist corrosive attack by acids, alkalis, molten metals, molten salts, as well as oxidizing and reducing gases, even at high temperatures. It is widely used in many high-temperature laboratory and pilot-plant scale applications, such as for crucibles, tubes, and special shapes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... resulting from the presence of salt contaminants, such as Na2SO 4 , NaCl, and V 2 O 5 , which combine to form molten deposits that will damage the protective surface oxides. There is a general agreement that condensed alkali metal salts, including (notably) Na 2 SO 4 , are a prerequisite to hot corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to a concentration of boiler salts, in particular, sodium hydroxide. This had dissolved the normally protective magnetite scale leading to local corrosion and ultimately to the formation of pits and channels on the bore of the tube, a phenomenon to which the term “caustic grooving” has been applied. An alternative...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... used was not adequate to guarantee the operating life of the blades due to excess sulfur trioxide, carbon, and sodium in the combustion gases, which caused pitting. A molten salt environmental cracking mechanism was also a factor and was enhanced by the working stresses and by the presence of silicon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... driving forces to cause rapid attack) Biological corrosion (which is a microbial-assisted form of attack that can manifest itself as uniform corrosion by forming weak or cathodic oxides, or it can also produce a localized form of attack) Molten salt corrosion and liquid-metal corrosion (which have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... rapid attack) Biological corrosion (which is a microbial-assisted form of attack that can manifest itself as uniform corrosion by forming weak or cathodic oxides, or it can also produce a localized form of attack) Molten salt corrosion and liquid metal corrosion (which have become more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... within the tube) and then fractured, which allowed molten salt to flow into the tube. Chemical processing industry Chemical reactors Fused salts, environment Overheating Tubing St 35.8 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Selected Reference • Pond R.B. Jr...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the deterioration of a material by a reaction of that material with its environment. The realization that corrosion control can be profitable has been acknowledged repeatedly by industry, typically following costly business interruptions. This article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the electrochemical nature of corrosion and analyzes corrosion-related failures. It describes corrosion failure analysis and discusses corrective and preventive approaches to mitigate corrosion-related failures of metals. These include: change...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., the lamellar oxide structure, as well as the existence of chloride and sulfide near the substrate, reveals that the main reaction of corrosion was oxidation, chlorination, or sulphuration. As to the pitting corrosion on the outer wall, molten salt corrosion probably occurred at the early stage of reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... annealing, etching and electroplating operations, and corrosion. A hydrogen pickup of 1 to 2 ppm as a result of salt bath annealing noticeably reduces elongation. Hydrogen absorbed during etching and electroplating is concentrated at the surface and does not degrade tensile properties. Corrosion of uranium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., etching and electroplating operations, and corrosion. A hydrogen pickup of 1 to 2 ppm as a result of salt bath annealing noticeably reduces elongation. Hydrogen absorbed during etching and electroplating is concentrated at the surface and does not degrade tensile properties. Corrosion of uranium in water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... sections of the ship. Bringham and Lafreniere 6 had calculated that the hull plate retrieved in 1991 from the RMS Titanic had been originally 2.54 cm thick prior to the sinking and that salt water corrosion had reduced its thickness to 1.60 cm during the intervening years between 1912 and 1996...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... FAILURES may be divided into two classes: those rejected after inspection and mechanical testing, and failures in service that may arise from fracture, wear, corrosion, or deformation (distortion). Causes for rejection during inspection may be either features visible on the weldment surface or subsurface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or impact induced • Low temperatures • Cyclic stress exceeded the endurance limit of the material • Check for proper strength, surface finish, assembly, and operation • Prior damage by mechanical or corrosion modes may have initiated cracking • Alignment, vibration, balance • High cycle low stress: large...