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molten metal bath

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract The working fluid of a hypersonic wind tunnel is freon 14 heated in molten-metal-bath heat exchangers. The coils of the heaters have failed several times from various causes. They have been replaced each time with a stainless steel deemed more appropriate, but they continue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the grain boundaries and the hydrogen that readily promoted decarburization with the use of dry (2 to 3% moisture content) coke. Maintaining a thick layer of coke over the entire surface of molten lead in the pan would exclude atmospheric oxygen from the grain boundaries. Decarburizing Lead (metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... are based on the temperature needed to austenitize the tube alloy (0.10% C steel) and the quenching temperature necessary to form martensite. Because the salt bath temperature was reported to be approximately 370 °C (700 °F), it is apparent that molten salt acted as the quenching medium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... were made by bending sheet and welding the seams. Furnace temperatures range from 900 to 700 °C (1650 to 1290 °F), with the metal being cast at 710 °C (1310 °F). Some scrap remelting and fluxing operations are also carried out. The heaters are linked to thermocouples placed in the molten...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...% was established analytically. Silicon accelerates the reaction between iron and zinc, which should have been taken into account in the present case by reducing the dip time or a small addition of aluminum (0.1 to 0.2%) to the galvanizing bath to retard the extremely rapid growth of the zinc layer and the strong...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... at the component manufacturing facility. A tour of the entire production process revealed that hardened slag products along the outside of the crucible were inadvertently being poured into the casting die along with the molten metal. It was concluded that this may have attributed to the inclusions noted in the two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... water, which prefer a hexagonal crystal habit. Entrained air is another type of gas porosity, but it is generally less well known. Entrained air porosity occurs during the molten metal injection process and is due to excessive turbulence. Entrained air porosity tends to be irregular in shape...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... revealed a rather complex crack pattern, evidence of exposure to very high temperatures, and ruptures in the overheated region. Bronze bearing metal was observed in the cracked surface region located beneath the support bearing. The bearing metal was molten when it penetrated the axle. In addition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and characteristics of heat source) Chemical composition of base metal Cleaning preparation and after-process cleaning Chemical composition of filler metal Joint protection against oxidation flux, bath composition, protective atmospheres Joint temperature and time Joint design/joint geometry, joint...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., this mechanism was ruled out. Liquid metal embrittlement is caused by penetration of a liquid metal into the base metal, usually at the grain boundary. Penetration of steel by molten tin, which was plated onto the coupling, is an example of LME. Because LME is an unusual form of attack in oilfield service...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or minimizes attack on the metal and the consequent generation of nascent hydrogen. Salt baths operated at approximately 210 °C (410 °F) can be used for descaling titanium alloys, superalloys, and refractory metals to avoid the possibility of hydrogen charging associated with pickling. Plating solutions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to 390 °F) hastens the removal of hydrogen. Also, the addition of suitable inhibitors to the pickling solution eliminates or minimizes attack on the metal and the consequent generation of nascent hydrogen. Salt baths operated at approximately 210 °C (410 °F) can be used for descaling titanium alloys...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... that the cause of failure of each of the three salt pots was severe intergranular corrosion accompanied by substantial chromium depletion. No recommendations were made. Dechromizing Salt baths Salt pots RA-330 UNS N08330 Dealloying/selective leaching Intergranular corrosion High-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to determine the type of melting employed. Defective castings resulting from the choice of melting are generally not an issue. Processing the liquid metal after melting can introduce conditions that may affect quality and introduce defects and/or imperfections. Molten Metal Handling Slag removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Intergranular attack is usually best detected in the as-polished condition ( Fig. 18 ). Fig. 18 Intergranular corrosion in (a) 316 stainless steel and (b) aluminum Liquid Metal Embrittlement Certain metals in the molten condition will cause cracking in other metals, for example, cadmium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... ]. The primary source of hydrogen is the molten carbonate salt bath used for preheating the alloy before metalworking operations. Hydrogen absorbed from the salt bath can be removed by outgassing in a vacuum or argon during the solution heat treatment process. Experimental Procedures Quench-Related Cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by surface contact with another metal in either liquid or solid form. This phenomenon from the presence of another metal in the molten state has been known for some time as liquid metal embrittlement. More recently, the term liquid metal induced embrittlement (LMIE) has been accepted as more descriptive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Metal-induced embrittlement is a phenomenon in which the ductility or the fracture stress of a solid metal is reduced by surface contact with another metal in either the liquid or solid form. This article summarizes some of the characteristics of liquid-metal- and solid-metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, and liquid-metal embrittlement of bolts and nuts. The article explains the most commonly used protective metal coatings for ferrous metal fasteners. Zinc, cadmium, and aluminum are commonly used for such coatings. The article also illustrates...