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molten iron

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0045909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to show the distribution of iron and oxygen ( Fig. 4a to c ). These results indicated that the inclusions were iron oxide. A similar inclusion at the failure site in the melting pot may have reacted violently with the molten magnesium, causing the leak. Fig. 3 EPMA spectra obtained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0089617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... steel cylindrical permanent mold shown in Fig. 1 was used for centrifugal casting of gray- and ductile-iron pipe. In operation, the mold rotated at a predetermined speed in a centrifugal casting machine while the molten metal, flowing through a trough approximately 5.8 m (19 ft) long, was poured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... lines are iron carbides or nitrides that have formed on dislocations. The age of the steel means that it was probably made by the Bessemer process and that nitrogen from the air blown through the molten iron was dissolved in the steel used to make the stud. The nitrogen formed a nitride of iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... classification of shape-casting processes. Source: Ref 13 Fig. 10 Permanent mold of 4130 steel for centrifugal casting of gray and ductile iron pipe that failed because of localized overheating. The failure was caused by splashing of molten metal at the spigot end. Subsequent overheating resulted...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... casting. Cast iron, gray cast iron, malleable irons, ductile iron, low-alloy steel castings, austenitic steels, corrosion-resistant castings, and cast aluminum alloys are the materials discussed. The article describes the general types of discontinuities or imperfections for traditional casting with sand...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... revealed a rather complex crack pattern, evidence of exposure to very high temperatures, and ruptures in the overheated region. Bronze bearing metal was observed in the cracked surface region located beneath the support bearing. The bearing metal was molten when it penetrated the axle. In addition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 1095 2005 6 310 1150 2100 6 316, 317, 321, 347 925 1695 6 330 1150 2100 6 405, 410 705 1300 6 416 675 1245 6 420 620 1150 6 430 815 1500 6 440 760 1400 6 442 980 1795 6 446 1095 2005 6 Superalloys N-155 iron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion of reheater and superheater tubes ( Ref 35 ). Molten sodium pyrosulfates (Na 2 S 2 O 7 : m.p. 400 °C, or 750 °F) or potassium pyrosulfates (K 2 S 2 O 7 : m.p. <300 °C, or <570 °F) react with carbon steels by dissolving the protective oxide film and then reacting with iron to cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the pot permitting the molten magnesium alloy to contact the iron oxide causing a thermite-like reaction, which by its strongly exothermic nature would locally melt the steel causing the leak. The ensuing fire in the furnace hearth would overheat the outside surface of the pot bottom in a very unstable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... with permission of the Iron & Steelmaker. 13 ) Because the RMS Titanic steel has a Mn:S ratio of 7:1, the MnS particles will have a varying amount of iron replacing manganese. The silicate particles (slag) are the result of their entrapment in the molten steel during teeming into an ingot mold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... reaction within the tube) and then fractured, which allowed molten salt to flow into the tube. Chemical processing industry Chemical reactors Fused salts, environment Overheating Tubing St 35.8 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Background Visual of General Examination Physical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... by the loosened ends of the strips. The bolt had fractured near the head, a location which probably coincided with the junction of the strips. A portion of the fracture surface was covered with copper that had been deposited in the molten state, while some was also present along the shank of the bolt, having...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... diffusion to the steel substrate. The initial oxide layer of Fe 3 O 4 /Cr 2 O 3 was stable and inhibited corrosion, but its lamellar structure was favorable for electrochemical reaction with molten salt at high temperatures. Such salts include alkali iron trisulfates, which are important corrosive species...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the blade surface, while still in the molten or semisolid condition, existed if grinding was severe and coolant was insufficient. This possibility was confirmed by simulation tests. Impingement of the hot particles formed during the grinding operation onto the cold surface of the blades had a localized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... silver braze filler metals (AWS BAg-1, AWS BAg-2) and with flux. This reaction takes place when the stainless steels are heated under molten brazed flux with a selective depletion of chromium from the faying surfaces, thereby exposing a thin layer of chromium-free iron. This surface layer is readily...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the crack was examined microscopically. This revealed that the crack was associated with intergranular penetration by molten metal. The microstructure in general was indicative of a good-quality mild steel. It was evident from that solder that was responsible for the penetration and that fused brass from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was not known; bulk chemical analysis had simply shown that iron was a major component. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis were used to identify the deposits. In the first instance, the deposit was found to be debris that was left in the reheater tubes during boiler modification and swept...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Penetration by molten copper occurred in the economizer of a large water-tube boiler. A cross section through a weld and the crack in the tube revealed a crack was an intergranular fissure. Small fissures of the same type also extended from its flanks. The main fissure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , High-Temperature Corrosion of Technical Ceramics , Fordham R.J. , Ed., Elsevier Applied Science , 1990 , p 93 – 108 17. Lowrance K. , Refractory Lining Construction , Pneumatic Steelmaking, Volume 3 on Refractories , Rigaud M.A. and Landy R.A. , Ed., Iron and Steel...