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molecular weight distribution

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... modulus, tan delta Temperature-dependent behavior, aging/degradation, solid-liquid interactions Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) Weight-average molecular weight, molecular weight distribution Degradation, suitability of material for use Melt flow rate (MFR) Melt viscosity Degradation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is the statistical nature of their molecular chains. A distribution of chain lengths is a consequence of the random nature of most polymerization reactions. Thus, polymers are generally characterized by a molecular-weight distribution and the associated averages. This is discussed in more detail in the article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... may involve the following methods: Molecular spectroscopy. Infrared (IR) or Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy Molecular weight (MW) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) using light scattering as well as other secondary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chromatography (GPC) Weight-average molecular weight, M ¯ w ; molecular weight distribution (MWD) Low-angle light scattering M ¯ w , MWD Osmometry, membrane Number-average molecular weight, M ¯ n Osmometry, vapor pressure M ¯ n Dilute solution viscosity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., copolymer, terpolymer, blends, alloys Additives: intentional, unintentional Molecular weight Molecular weight distribution Cross linking gives infinite molecular weight. Intermolecular order Crystallinity Orientation: intentional, unintentional Degree of fusion Thermal transitions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for the PDMS is observed that provides an indication of the molecular weight of this contaminant. When looking at TOF-SIMS spectra, two things should be kept in mind. First, this technique is only sampling the outer few atomic layers of the sample and thus highlights any impurities present on the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Soil water saturation, % 5–36 +0.626 Oxidation-reduction potential, mV (CSE) (b) −316 to +384 −0.545 Sulfate concentration in groundwater, mg/g wet weight soil 0.3–200 +0.455 Clay content of soil … +0.407 (a) Viable cell count based on most probable number method. (b) CSE...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... be inevitably increased to some extent. Under this condition, the grease used in the bearing suffered two kinds of degradation, i.e., the decomposition and the oxidation. The former one would produce several low-molecular-weight organic compounds, and the latter one would generate products with higher...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... conditions, where X = H + . In this case, reduction of protons from the electrolyte leads to formation of atomic hydrogen on the metal surface. To escape the surface, atoms of hydrogen must combine to form molecular hydrogen that can then be lost to solution or enter the steel matrix, as shown in Fig. 3...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and in general are either electronic or mechanical in principle. Obviously, small size and light weight are advantages in portable testers. The major components of the portable laboratory may include: A custom-made machine, plus auxiliary materials, for grinding and polishing small, mounted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as the transition temperature between the glassy, or brittle, and relatively flexible phases of a polymer. This temperature, in turn, depends on the average molecular weight of a thermoplastic polymer or the degree of crosslinking for a thermoset polymer. Polymers used above their T g can readily creep under...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and aluminium alloys Randomly distributed Large microvoids (mainly transgranular) Lower K Ic Acceleration of high stress intensity fatigue Intergranular carbides in steels Nucleation of cleavage Dispersoids in steels and aluminium alloys Randomly distributed Sheets of small transgranular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as with increasing molecular weight. The chains, unless specific procedures have been undertaken to cause alignment, are extensively kinked and interwoven ( Fig. 18 ) ( Ref 12 ). Behavior of polymeric materials also depends strongly on whether the service temperature is above or below the glass transition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... insulating properties. While maintaining the porosity at this value, further improvements are possible through reducing the pore-size distribution so that the larger pores are of a smaller size, and through reducing the permeability of the refractory by using fused grains instead of sintered grains...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and maintenance responsibility Distress damage or failed components Application Undercapacity Overcapacity Incorrect physical condition assumed (temperature, pressure, etc.) Incorrect physical property assumed (molecular weight, etc.) Specifications Inadequate lubrication system Insufficient control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...” is a statistical metric referring to six times the statistical standard deviation of a normal distribution, which allows no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities (equivalent to 99.9997% reliability). This is indeed a lofty goal for any organization (be it a manufacturing company, a petrochemical plant...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ). The type, distribution, and size of these constituents are also mechanistically important and are discussed in greater depth later in this article. Simple overload fractures are not uncommon in bulk deformation manufacturing processes. Even when not resulting in fracture, severe room-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., distribution, and size of these constituents are also mechanistically important and are discussed in greater depth later in this article. Examples of Simple Ductile Overload Failures Simple overload fractures are not uncommon in bulk deformation manufacturing processes. Even when not resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... apparently reflected a characteristically uneven distribution of stress on the four corners of the workpiece during forming and in service, by which one corner was more highly stressed than the three others. Cracking on one corner appeared to relieve the stress on the other corners. Corrective Measures...