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moisture concentration

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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 2 Moisture concentration plot versus time ( Ref 6 ) of epoxy demonstrates effects of dimension and temperature on moisture uptake. Linear portion of curve follows Fick’s law. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the physics and math associated with moisture-related failures in plastic components. It develops key equations, showing how they are used to analyze the causes and effects of water uptake, diffusion, and moisture concentration in polymeric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... was produced by stress corrosion as the combined result of: residual forming and service stresses; the concentration of tensile stress at outer square corners of the pierced slots; and preferential corrosive attack along the grain boundaries as a result of high humidity and occasional condensation of moisture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract While in the stationary mode, capillary action at the contact line between roller and race in a steel rolling mill taper bearing caused a concentration of lubricant and moisture to occur. This lead to lines of corrosion pits at roller intervals. During subsequent operation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of species (ions) into the surrounding medium. Chemical leaching from additives may be activated because of environmental conditions (temperature and/or moisture concentration). Loss of fillers and additives increases with increasing temperature. Additives that are solids are less likely to migrate within...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... or lower. The edges of many panels were not corroded because enough moisture escaped so that there was not a sufficient concentration of liquid water to affect corrosion. To determine the source of the corrosive agents, the wood technologist suggested a test in which the plywood would be sliced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the nondiscolored and discolored regions. This technique utilizes X-rays to determine relative concentrations of a given element in a sample. X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube in the instrument, causing the various elements in the target to fluoresce. The X-rays emitted by each element have wavelengths...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046874
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Both the zinc coating, which provided galvanic protection for the spring, and the open-top valve construction, which allowed free circulation of air with a reduced concentration of moisture, were considered instrumental in eliminating corrosion fatigue of these valve springs. Alternatively, the valve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... probably emanated from the OD pits and propagated through the steel. This type of cracking is very common under insulation, because moisture penetrates holes or seams in the insulation, concentrating the atmospheric chlorides when it collects above the support rings. These locally high chloride...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... into the composite. Also, wicking of moisture into fiber/matrix debond areas would tend concentrate the initial damage to the fiber tows as was noted during the investigation. Lessons Learned This investigation revealed two important techniques which will be utilized in other analyses. These include, first...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... sulfide attack on the carbon steel. The presence of oxygen was indicated by the carbon and sulfur found in the scale on the piping and in the sieves indicated that oxygen combined with moisture produced conditions for attack of hydrogen sulfide on carbon steel. Turbulence with some effect from the coarse...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... propagated by stress-corrosion cracking. The cause of cracking was twofold: use of interference-fit fasteners exposed to moisture intrusion from a marine environment and poor hole quality. Failure was intensified by dissimilar-metal contact in the presence of weak acidic electrolyte (dissociated MoS2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to the wall of the bore, with the damage concentrated on one side. It was apparent that mechanical damage to the original corrosion protection scheme from insertion of the pillow-block bushing, combined with fretting and the ingress of moisture to the region, had resulted in failure of the protection scheme...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... sensitization and susceptibility to aqueous intergranular corrosion. Chemical analysis showed the predominant acid radical to be sulfate (6.20% in the carbonaceous deposit and 0.60% in the corrosion product), suggesting that oxidation of SO2 in the flue gas caused the corrosion. Moisture condensation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of low level surface chlorides. Controls were implemented to insure that temperatures are kept below 150 deg F, or, walls of the pipe are moisture-free or the cumulative wetted period will never exceed 30 h. Chlorides Piping 304 UNS S30400 Stress-corrosion cracking Transgranular fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... with the surfaces of the titanium particles in the pyrotechnic. Based on these observations, it was proposed that the chlorine-containing residue be combined with the water from the pyrotechnic to form a thin aqueous film containing a substantial concentration of chloride ions, which began corroding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... are susceptible to the effects of weather. These weather factors that contribute to degradation of plastics include heat and temperature variations, humidity and moisture variations, solar radiation, oxygen, microbiologic attack, and other environmental elements. The results of exposing plastics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) can also be used for this purpose. Drying Most plastic materials absorb moisture to some degree. The degree of absorption depends strictly on the chemical structure of the material. Nonpolar materials such as PP, polyethylene (PE), PS, and PVC have a low affinity for moisture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... fractographic examinations. The microscopic and electron fractographic examinations concentrate on the character of the microstructure, searching for changes in the microstructure which are characteristic of one or more of the various damage mechanisms. The first and most obvious item to look...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... transgranular fracture failure mechanism. Water containing H7S was subsequently identified as the aggressive environment that precipitated the fractures in the presence of high tensile stress. This environment was generated by the chemical breakdown of the engine oil additive and moisture ingress...