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moderate-strength casting alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of gross overload. Use of an alloy with a much higher yield strength and improvement in design were recommended. Chain drives Cracking Motor vehicles Sand castings UNS A14130 A413.0 LM6M (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture Background A sprocket drive wheel in a tracked all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... interpretation by many engineers. However, the impact of hardenability on steel materials must be recognized. For illustration of the implications of alloying variation, the moderate hardenability Grade 4130 steel is selected, due to its widespread use in many industries. The alloying elements for this grade...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and decarburization. Both of these definitions apply equally well to a casting or a weldment. Proper selection of casting process, alloy selection, part and mold design, solidification control, and grain refinement minimize hot cracking problems. Hot strength (resistance to cracking at solidification temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... triple points• Reaction scales or internal precipitation• Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part• Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis• Loading direction may show failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Multiple intergranular cracks • Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points • Reaction scales or internal precipitation • Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... method is to increase the thermal gradient (often accomplished by increasing the solidification rate), which decreases the length of the mushy zone. This technique can be limited by alloy and mold thermal properties and by casting geometry, that is, the design of the casting. The fatigue strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Steels melted and cast in the presence of excess water vapor can, in the liquid state, absorb enormous concentrations of hydrogen generated by reactions between the water vapor and alloying elements. Upon cooling during solidification, the solubility for hydrogen decreases drastically, and the hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in an alloy is to increase the average grain size, which decreases the overall grain boundary area. Optical and SEM backscatter photographs documenting creep induced voiding along transverse grain boundaries within an equiaxed airfoil casting are shown in Fig. 13 . Over time, the internal voiding increases...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chunks of rock. It is accompanied by heavy impact and by high bending and compressive forces on the wearing parts, which are made as heavy-section castings. As a result, the choice of ferrous alloys that can be used with confidence in these applications is limited. Traditionally, austenitic 12% Mn steels...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and handling of large chunks of rock. It is accompanied by heavy impact and by high bending and compressive forces on the wearing parts, which are made as heavy section castings. As a result, the choice of ferrous alloys that can be used with confidence in these applications is limited. Traditionally...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the effects of load frequency and temperature, material condition, and manufacturing practices on fatigue strength. It provides information on subsurface discontinuities, including gas porosity, inclusions, and internal bursts as well as on corrosion fatigue testing to measure rates of fatigue-crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Prior condition and microstructure Surface defects Alloy segregation or banding Can cause localized hardness and microstructure gradients Increases tendency toward cracking Decarburization Surface is depleted of carbon. Low tensile strength, increased tendency toward...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as approximately 10% of the yield strength; for other metal-environment combinations, threshold stress is approximately 70% of yield strength ( Ref 10 ). The effect of alloy composition on threshold stress is typified by the graph in Fig. 3 , which illustrates the relationship between applied stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... was one with much higher creep strength—MAR-M002, a nickel-base superalloy casting. Based on Larson-Miller creep-rupture curves for the two materials, the MAR-M002 alloy was estimated to have a creep life approximately 50 times that of the alloy (Nimonic 115) in the subject case at the estimated operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... initiation. The LCF tests are carried out on small, unnotched specimens under pure alternating strain cycles ( R ε = −1) ( Fig. 9 ). Fig. 9 Example of low-cycle fatigue curve for a die-cast aluminum alloy The LCF curve is usually expressed by the Manson-Coffin equation ( Ref 9 , 10 ), which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., such as magnesium or zinc, may be introduced into the galvanic assembly. The most active member will corrode while providing cathodic protection to the other members in the galvanic assembly (for example, zinc anodes in cast iron waterboxes of copper alloy water-cooled heat exchangers). Cathodic protection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). Source: Ref 30 There is also a particle size distribution in high-strength, age-hardening aluminum alloys, but different behavior in an aluminum casting alloy has been reported ( Ref 31 ). The iron- and/or silicon-rich phases are the inclusions that are smaller than other phases created...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Company Hydrogen Embrittlement Hydrogen embrittles several metals and alloys, and the effects can range from a slight decrease in the percent reduction of area at fracture to a brittle macroscopic fracture at a relatively low applied stress (often well below the yield strength). Even small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and alloys, and the effects can range from a slight decrease in the percent reduction of area at fracture to a brittle macroscopic fracture at a relatively low applied stress (often well below the yield strength). Even small amounts of hydrogen can have a deleterious effect, particularly for high-strength...