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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Gears in a strip mining dragline failed in service. The material was identified as a low-alloy (NiCrMoV) steel. SEM analysis indicated that the initial fracture and subsequent fractures resulted from impact or a suddenly applied load. Mechanical testing indicated that the gears had low...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion can often occur in the absence of mechanical wear, the converse is rarely true. Corrosion accompanies the wear process to some extent in all environments, except in a vacuum and inert atmospheres. Corrosion and wear often combine to cause aggressive damage in a number of industries, such as mining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by the counterbody ( Ref 3 ). The main factors affecting the severity of adhesive wear as well as its mode or type include ( Ref 27 ): Components and tool design Applied load Contact area and degree of movement Lubricant type and lubrication mode Environment Material properties (i.e...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...- and three-body abrasion, sliding abrasion, gouging abrasion, high- and low-stress abrasion, impact abrasion, grinding abrasion, and so on. The more precise terminology for some of these classifications is further explained subsequently. In the excavation, earthmoving, mining, and mineral processing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., sliding abrasion, gouging abrasion, high- and low-stress abrasion, impact abrasion, grinding abrasion, and so on. The more precise terminology for some of these classifications is further explained subsequently. In the excavation, earth-moving, mining, and mineral-processing industries, the following...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0065827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... in different types of operations. Cutting tools Materials selection Woodworking machinery Fe-0.48C-0.30Mn-0.90Si-8.50Cr-1.35Mo-1.20W-0.30V Fe-0.50C-0.30Mn-0.40Si-5.00Cr-2.00Mo (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture This example describes how a steel research engineer used failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... function). Therefore, failure analysts need to understand the underlying principles and practices of design and materials selection as basic tools in failure prevention. However, failure analysts also recognize that the synergistic effects of service conditions, manufacturing effects, and material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... techniques are used. This is where finite-element analysis (FEA) is most applicable and provides considerable assistance in design analysis as well as failure analysis. Finite-element analysis is one of the most common tools used by design engineers. It has application in the structural/mechanical fields...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., failure analysts need to understand the underlying principles and practices of design and materials selection as basic tools in failure prevention. However, failure analysts also recognize that the synergistic effects of service conditions, manufacturing effects, and material characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface or by abrasive particles (rolling or grooving) in corrosive environments. For example, during wet milling, a metal surface is abraded by abrasives involving simultaneous electrochemical reactions in an aqueous solution. Other examples of abrasion-corrosion include mining shearers working in wet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... In-service cracking occurred to a large piece of mining equipment. The vehicle was fabricated from ASTM A 572 Grade 50 High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steel, ranging in thickness from 38 to 152 mm. Fatigue fracture was found to have initiated in a weld HAZ in 127 mm thick plate. The plate met the grade...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and safety, reliability, and quality can be greatly reduced. Excessive wear from inlet and exhaust valves impacting their seating faces in automotive engines can lead to loss of cylinder pressure and ultimately engine failure. Failure of tools used for drilling rock and other media raises cost concerns...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... considerable assistance in design analysis as well as failure analysis. Finite element analysis is one of the most common tools used by design engineers. It has application in the structural/mechanical fields to determine the stress, strain, and displacements of structures subjected to different types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., that require tool steels or food-grade equipment, where wear-resistant stainless steels are used. Both the hardness and the carbon content of the carburized case have a tremendous effect on the durability of the gears, with life dropping off rapidly when the hardness is below 58 HRC. Also, research...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and Fracture Surfaces,” on pages 78 to 90 in Fractography , Volume 12 of the Metals Handbook , 9th edition (now Volume 12 of the ASM Handbook ). Nondestructive Inspection Although often used as quality-control tools, several nondestructive tests are useful in failure investigation and analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... This, in part, explains the growing use of MMM as a detection tool in biological failure analysis. Partial oxidation of sulfide (chemically or microbiologically) can lead to the formation of aggressive agents such as inorganic polysulfides and elemental sulfur ( Ref 56 , 62 ). Thiosulfate has been...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... years, compositions of refractories were limited to individual minerals as mined. With time, it was recognized that nature did not proportion the oxide contents of the minerals in the most suitable ratio for optimum refractory performance. As pure oxides became available and affordable in terms of cost...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... resulting in blunting of this secondary crack. 2% nital etch. 492× In many cases, a combination of fracture mechanisms suggests a minority phase has acted detrimentally. Figures 9(a) and (b) show fracture through globular carbides in a thin tool steel component resulting in matrix fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., The shaft was broken in a press after discovery of the crack. The fracture surface of a large mine winding engine crankshaft is shown in Fig. 10 . The shaft, 15 in. in diameter, had been in service for sixteen years and had replaced one that fractured, after a life of twenty-three years, in an almost...