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mineral acids

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...-type mineral-oil lubricant (containing molybdenum disulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene particles) or grease conforming to MIL-G-81322 (containing thickening agent and synthetic hydrocarbons) and had two-piece spot-welded retainers. On visual examination, the balls were observed to be embedded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the understanding that the analysis will have lower precision and higher detection limits. Digestion of solid samples into solution and the ICP-OES analysis method require higher skill levels than other OES methods. The use of one or more mineral acids in varying proportions is necessary to produce complete...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., suggesting that some of the reddish brown debris may be residue from the adhesive used to attach the foam insulation. Finally, whitish mineral deposits are present on the OD due to weeping of water through the tank. Fig. 1 View of the failed 20,000 liter (5000 gallon) hot water holding tank...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in oral cavity were due to bacterial activity [ 9 ]. Besides, calcium accumulation was also noticed in hot spring [ 10 ]. Mixed fouling of microorganism and other minerals existing in various water systems take place when the water flows through equipment and pipes. It decreases the performance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., clays, and iron oxide minerals are common in aggregate materials, as are reaction rims. These products were formed between the original rock and altering solutions such as mineralized or acidic waters, either in their original depositional environments or under weathering or transport conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., mineral processing, chemical processing, and energy production. Corrosion and wear processes involve many mechanisms, the combined actions of which lead to the mutual reinforcement of their effectiveness. Seventeen synergistic relationships between abrasion, impact, and corrosion that could significantly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and the application of preventive measures. The fundamentals of corrosion are described in more detail in Ref 2 . However, as a brief introduction, the electrochemical nature of corrosion can be illustrated by the attack on zinc by hydrochloric acid (HCl). When zinc is placed in dilute hydrochloric acid, a vigorous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Halophiles that have evolved to live at extreme salinities turn pink the evaporation pans used to win salt from seawater. Sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) create very acidic conditions (pH < 1) by producing sulfuric acid as an end product of their metabolism, while other microorganisms survive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as subzero snowfields to deep ocean thermal vents. Halophiles evolved to live at extreme salinities turn pink the evaporation pans used to win salt from seawater. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria create very acidic conditions (pH < 1) by producing sulfuric acid as an end product of their metabolism, while other...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., especially carbon dioxide and oxygen, which cause corrosion in the inner surfaces of the boilers. Increasing the water pH, thus avoiding inner corrosion in the boilers. Corrosion in Boilers In general, some factors can accelerate the corrosion process in boilers: acid pH; differential...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... years, compositions of refractories were limited to individual minerals as mined. With time, it was recognized that nature did not proportion the oxide contents of the minerals in the most suitable ratio for optimum refractory performance. As pure oxides became available and affordable in terms of cost...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of any two coordinates. Carbon nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, and halloysite clay nanotubes are examples of 1D nanofillers. Halloysite Nanotubes Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are two-layered aluminosilicate hollow structures and are dioctahedral 1:1 clay minerals of the kaolin clay family ( Ref 16...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Grate bars in the traveling grate indurators in several taconite processing units suffered excessive corrosion following a conversion from acid to fluxed pellet production procedures. The campaign life of the HH grade cast stainless steel bars was reduced from more than 7 years...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... the outfitting of the ship, to permit the loading of provisions on board for the voyage, to secure an adequate supply of coal because of a miners strike, and to conclude the hiring of the hotel staff and the ship's crew. The Voyage Shortly before noon on Wednesday, 10 April, the lines holding the RMS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...), fluoropolymers (PTFE, PFA, FEP, and ETFE), polylactic acid (PLA) Cross Linking For thermosets, a major structural influence on properties is the number and type of cross links. In network polymers such as epoxies, the network is produced by the joining of many short chains. Nonetheless, the actual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the hydrostatic design basis approach, Miner's rule, the Arrhenius model, and the Paris Law for fatigue crack propagation, are discussed. accelerated testing Arrhenius model chemical degradation environmental stress cracking fatigue crack propagation Miner's rule Paris law polymeric materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... into a pitting mechanism if the microcells develop enough to produce acidic gradients within the micropits where the graphite nodules lie or are dislodged. Uniform corrosion occurring by the microelectrolytic or galvanic cell in the ductile cast iron is shown in Fig. 8 . Observe the initial stages of micropits...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or sectioning destroy evidence needed for failure analysis. Fracture of a part in service is often intimately associated with the type of environment to which the part was exposed. Active chemical environments include water, salt air, salt water, acid solutions, alkaline solutions, molten metal, and even...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polymers. For terephthalic acid (TPA), the primary degradation product of PET, a transporter had been characterized earlier ( Ref 49 ). Definition of Biodegradation Biodegradability is not a strictly defined term. It indicates only that parts or the entire polymer may be degraded over time. Thus...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the thermal problem also offers resistance to cold flow. For these purposes, the polymer can be filled and reinforced with particles or fibers of glass, metal, and minerals. However, these fillers usually cause more wear of the shaft than the polymer does. For low friction, the more expensive...