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microstructure etchants

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... thermal treatments between 800 and 1100 deg C for periods of 1 to 100 min. Microstructural parameters in the control specimens and in those from TMI-2 were quantified. Selective etchants were used to better discriminate desired microstructural features, particularly in the cladding. This report...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... as it often appears in brass after heavier cold deformation. Fig. 6 Course of crack in microstructure; etchant: copper ammonium chloride ammonium hydroxide. 100× Therefore a test was conducted according to DIN 1785 to check for sensitivity to stress cracking. This consists in immersing a brass...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... elongated ferrite bands such as those shown. Etched with 2% nital. 100x. (b) Multiple-pass manual shielded metal arc weld in a test specimen, which resisted molten-zinc corrosion and which shows a refined microstructure. Etchant and magnification same as (a) After being weighed, the specimens were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in a union nut used in service. Fig. 1 a Aluminum–silicon–bronze microstructure (etchant: alcoholic ferric chloride solution), b intergranular defect in aluminum–silicon–bronze microstructure. Vertical direction is longitudinal direction of bar The microstructure of NAB ( Fig. 2 ) is finer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Views of the tube specimens. 1 ×. Thread-portions. Fig. 3 Longitudinal section s—s in Fig. 2 through a hard spot. Etchant: Nital. 10 × Fig. 4 Microstructure in the weldseam, longitudinal section. Etchant: Nital. 500 ×. Normal location. Fig. 5 Microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... transformed to martensite or bainite ( Fig. 7 ). Fig. 3 Transition from mild steel pipe to welding material, longitudinal section, etchant: V2A-etching solution. 100 × Fig. 4 Microstructure of the mild steel pipe, etchant: Picral. 100 × Fig. 5 Microstructure of the welding material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 0.8–1.5 1.3 1.1 a Iron content should not exceed the nickel content Fig. 3 Typical microstructure in bulk material containing mostly alpha phase ( a ) 100× and ( b ) 500×, etchant: 45 mL nitric acid and 45 mL acetic acid Fig. 4 Selectively attacked region near the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the OR. No microstructural anomalies were noted. Etchant: Nital 2% Fig. 6 Higher magnification metallographic cross-section from Fig. 5 showing the raceway corner lip-curling effect. The core microstructure below exhibited a typical quenched and tempered martensitic structure with a bony-type carbide morphology...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... , consists of martensite and dispersed carbides, with a few scattered manganese sulfide inclusions. Fig. 11 Gear core microstructure consisting of tempered martensite with an average hardness of 24 HRC. Nital etchant. (a)154×. (b)616× Fig. 12 Microstructure of the case-hardened gear teeth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... image of the area indicated in Fig. 7 (4% Nital Etchant); hardness locations A, B, and C in Mount A are indicated in the figure Fig. 9 Light photomicrograph of the microstructure of the white and dark regions shown in Fig. 8 (4% Nital Etchant) Figure 10 is a light photomicrograph...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cracking in stainless steels. The cracking in the expansion joint is therefore likely due to stress corrosion, which was caused by the caustic embrittlement. Scanning Electron Microscopy Fractography Microstructural Analysis Material and Weld Corrosion or Wear Deposits Both primary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 The 10-10 Etchant is customized for the CuMgAl 2 , eutectic phase in 2024. This two-step etchant can show general microstructural features without destroying the subtle features associated with local eutectic melting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with graphite nodules. Both tubes contained dense, uniform, internal scale approximately 76 µm (0.003 in.) thick. Fig. 3 Microstructure in Tube 3 at the rupture. The creep voids have linked up to form a crack. Nital etchant. (a) 177×. (b) 308×. Fig. 4 Microstructure in the remote rings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... 13 Microstructure of the tube material away from the weld to the header. Etchant: 10% oxalic acid (electrolytic). Magnification: ×200 Cracks Adjacent to Header In the as-polished longitudinal section, there was one transverse crack near the toe of the weld and numerous cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract The causes of cracking of an as-drawn 90-10 cupronickel tube during mechanical working were investigated to determine the source of embrittlement. Embrittlement was sporadic, but when present was typically noted after the first process anneal. Microstructural and chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... all of the structure at first. Later, it may be useful to use a selective etchant that reveals only the phase or constituent of interest, or at least produces strong contrast or color differences between two or more phases present, to improve the precision of microstructural measurements or to better...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel, failed by fatigue fracture, and the other, made of 316 austenitic stainless steel, experienced a similar fracture, which was promoted by the presence of nonmetallic inclusion particles. pump shafts fracture sulfide inclusions stainless steel fatigue striations cleavage microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Fig. 3 Cross section through the eye showing cracking through the aligned stringer inclusions. Unetched. 2× Fig. 4 High-magnification view of the eye fracture surface showing fracture through the sulfide inclusions and a banded microstructure. 2% nital etchant. 28× It was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... near the trailing edge of SX turbine blade casting at ∼ 5% airfoil span. Casting contains no grain boundaries. Etchant: 33% glycerol, 33% nitric acid, 33% acetic acid, and 1–3% hydrofluoric acid Another common microstructural observation for stress-rupture events in nickel-based superalloy...