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microstructural defects

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Microstructure at and near the spiking defect shown in Fig. 46. (a) Heavy oxidation within an interdendritic void. As-polished. (b) Partial decarburization of the tempered martensitic matrix adjacent to a spiking defect. Etched with nital. Both 300x More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Microstructure of spring: (a) lineal defect containing oxide in a martensitic matrix; (b) SEM micrograph showing intergranular crack ahead of the lineal defect shown in (a); (c) SEM micrograph of a corroded spring fracture surface at the crack origin of the longitudinal defect; and, (d More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 Microstructure of the defect after etching, exposing the traces of trapped contamination. The accompanying EDS spectra show the composition of the contaminant(s). More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Secondary crack initiation at pit-like defect in microstructure that represents an effective quench yet component cracked. More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Defective saw blade. Peripheral microstructure in chrome plated cutting edge. Transverse section, unetched. 500× More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 47 Microstructure at and near the spiking defect shown in Fig. 46 . (a) Heavy oxidation within an interdendritic void. As-polished. (b) Partial decarburization of the tempered martensitic matrix adjacent to a spiking defect. Etched with nital. Both 300× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... residual stresses or microstructural defects. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 809 – 822 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552 ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the cutting region. Sudden destruction may also be caused by residual microstructure defects in new cutting tools. This second failure state is called catastrophic failure ( Fig. 1b ). Catastrophic cutting tool failure often results in machine tool crashes that destroy the workpiece and damage the machine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in a concentrated caustic solution. Figure 4 shows the microstructure of the defect as seen from the substrate side of a free-standing deposit. The defect exists as a continuous, branched channel inside the EN coating ( Fig. 4 ). This observation indicates that the trapped particle had an elongated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... from the gas defect, type D graphite predominated ( Fig. 3c ). The matrix structure consisted of pearlite, with approximately 70% ferrite ( Fig. 4a ). At the region of the observed gas defect, carbides were observed in the microstructure ( Fig. 4b ). Fig. 2 Microstructures of the cracked door...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... connections, as welding connections between elements with such different diameters (105–6 mm) can lead to sharp notch defects like lack of penetration, accelerating the fatigue crack initiation phase, as act like localized stress raisers. The microstructures observed at weld metal and base metal from wire...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... through the defect indicated shrinkage porosity. This defect was found to interconnect the water jacket and the exhaust gas flow chamber. No cracks were found by magnetic-particle inspection. The gray iron cylinder head had a hardness of 229 HRB on the surface of the bottom deck. The microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0046182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the fracture surface revealed grain flow normal for this type of forging, but no visible defects. 400x metallographic examination of a section through the fracture surface showed that the microstructure was an acceptable tempered martensite. However, oxide inclusions were present at the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... and chrome plating. Fig. 4 Defective saw blade. Peripheral microstructure in chrome plated cutting edge. Transverse section, unetched. 500× Fig. 5 Satisfactory comparison blade. Peripheral microstructure in chrome plated cutting edge. Transverse section, unetched. 500× However...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...-sections cut through the defect areas were prepared for metallurgical examination. The base material of the shank revealed a uniform quenched and tempered martensite microstructure. The cross-section of the defect on the shank ID surface etched a much lighter colour, consistent with a change...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... Enlarged view of the defects shown in Fig. 2 , rolling effects on gear contour. 100 × Fig. 3 Unaffected case carburized gear tooth. Microhardness 724 HV. 400 × Fig. 4 Microstructure of the damaged area, reformed austenite and martensite. Microhardness 924 HV. 400 × Scrutiny...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Routine magnetic-particle inspection revealed crack indications in a number of shafts produced from hot-rolled 4130 steel bar. A pronounced indication of this size is cause for rejection if the defect is not eliminated during subsequent machining. A microstructural analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of large ferrite grains in an otherwise sound and high-quality material with a tempered martensite structure. In the carburized case, the defective region had a coarse martensitic structure. These microstructural observations could be explained by the depletion of chromium and nickel, which was detected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... portion of the fracture had a unique dimpled appearance, obviously influenced by the heavily worked microstructure ( Fig. 4b ). Fig. 2 SEM fractographs of the surface of spring. (a) 101×. (b) Wire drawing defect at the origin. 252×. Fig. 3 SEM fractographs of the origin of the fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... micrographic examination showed a microstructure of tempered martensite with low inclusion content as well as a pit or burned spot on the outer area of the ring. The defect was approximately 0.18 mm (0.007 in.) deep and 0.5 mm (0.020 in.) in diam and had a hardness of 58 to 60 HRC. The base metal adjacent...