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microstructural analysis

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... shows that it is in the wrought condition. It contains α and β, and lead particles are also present. These phases are discriminated by the EDS analysis ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 4 Microstructure of the shaft. Fig. 5 Microstructure of the brass nut. Fig. 3 shows that the shaft is held onto...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Iost A. : Clin. Mater. , 1990 , vol. 5 , pp. 309 – 18 . 6. Pohler O.E.M. : in ASM Handbook , Vol. 11 , Failure Analysis and Prevention , ASM International , Materials Park, OH , 1995 , pp. 670 – 94 . 7. Spivak J.M. , Zuckerman J.D. , Kummer F.J. , and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A microstructural analysis has been made of a burner nozzle removed from service in a coal gasification plant. The nozzle was a casting of a Co-29wt%Cr-19wt%Fe alloy. Extensive hot corrosion had occurred on the surface. There was penetration along grain boundaries, and corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Routine magnetic-particle inspection revealed crack indications in a number of shafts produced from hot-rolled 4130 steel bar. A pronounced indication of this size is cause for rejection if the defect is not eliminated during subsequent machining. A microstructural analysis of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Stage 2 (where corrosion was low) and Stage 3 (severe corrosion) were taken and subjected to visual inspection, SEM, x-ray diffraction, microhardness measurement, and chemical and microstructural analysis. It was determined that extended non-operation of the plant resulted in the settlement of corrosive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Inspections and microstructural analysis revealed intergranular corrosion of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy aircraft fuel line beneath ferrules. The cause of the corrosion was traced to the fuel line marking process, which involved electrolytic labeling. Although subsequent rinsing of the fuel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of the tube. This case history was adapted from: Caceres P.G. , Habib K. , Failure Analysis of a Steam Reformer Tube , Microstructural Science , Vol 23 , Advances and Applications in the Metallography and Characterization of Materials and Microelectronic Components , Stevens...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A forged aluminum alloy 2014-T6 catapult-hook attachment fitting (anodized by the chromic acid process to protect it from corrosion) from a naval aircraft broke in service. Spectrographic analysis, visual examination, microscopic examination, and tensile analysis showed minute cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047879
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... heat-affected zone of the forged steel shaft. Microscopic investigation and chemical analysis of the steel shaft revealed presence of martensite (offered a path of easy crack propagation) around the fusion line and dilution of the weld metal by the carbon steel shaft. The microstructure was found to be...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... microstructural investigation supported the conclusion that the bushing fractured in fatigue because of a highly stressed case-hardened surface of unsatisfactory microstructure and subsurface nonmetallic inclusions. Cracks initiated at the highly stressed surface and propagated across the section as a result of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0092131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...-carbon steel wire. Distorted outer spring (left) exhibited about 25% set because of proeutectoid ferrite in the microstructure and high operating temperature. Outer spring (right) is satisfactory. Selected Reference • Maker J.H. , Failures of Springs , Failure Analysis and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... than others, although their microstructures may not show any significant differences, and it seems probable that this behavior may be related to the amount and continuity of the grain-boundary carbides. Alkalies Boilers Carbides Caustic cracking Electron microscopy Steam boilers Steam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Pipes made of low-carbon Thomas steel had been welded longitudinally employing the carbon-arc process with bare electrode wire made for argon-shielded arc welding. Difficulties were encountered during the cutting of threads because of the presence of hard spots. Microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... exceptionally high copper content was noticeable. Microstructural examination showed the damage was due to overheating and burning during preheating and bending. Furthermore, crack formation was promoted by precipitation of metallic copper that had penetrated into the austenitic grain boundaries under the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... microstructure typical of a medium-carbon steel (carbon approximately 0.4%) in the normalized condition, a material not weldable by ordinary methods. It was concluded that the post-welding crack arose primarily from the thermal contraction which developed in the weld metal on cooling. It is probable that if the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... surface of the crack which has been forced open. 2× Fig. 4 Fracture-surface at fractured end of blade stump. 2× Analysis confirmed that the blades consisted of a steel containing 0.2% C and 13% Cr as is customarily employed for such blades. For the microstructure examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... grinding and polishing into the crack extremities to reveal the crack features and the microstructure for conventional optical and SEM examination. Finally, the crack was broken open to expose the fractographic features and to permit further analysis of the crack face deposits by EDXA and Auger techniques...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... fracture surfaces were examined visually and by optical (light) stereomicroscopy. Material testing showed a sample to be within the specified material limits for aluminum alloy 6061. Microscopic examination showed no significant differences in microstructure or grain size among the four T-sections, and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... formation of hard spots. The mode of crack propagation was established by microstructural examination to be transgranular cleavage. It was concluded that failure of the pressure vessel stemmed from the formation of transverse fabrication cracks in the HAZ fostered by the presence of hard spots. It was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., indicative of pre-existing cracks, were revealed by examination of the fracture surface at the drain grooves arc gouged at the nozzle sites. A thin layer of material with a dendritic structure was observed at the groove surface. The dendritic layer was revealed by qualitative microprobe analysis to contain...