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microscopic scale

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... failure, whereas the opposite side exhibited a planar-type fracture. Sections were removed from the eroded area and from the opposite lip for microscopic studies and chemical analysis. The eroded edges exhibited river bed ditching, indicative of thermal fatigue. Microstructural analysis showed massive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0048819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... and scale near the crack origin were revealed by microscopic examination and cracking was found to be transgranular. Periods of corrosion alternated with sudden instances of cleavage, under a tensile load, along preferred slip planes were interpreted during examination with a microscope. It was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract During microscopic examination of a number of cases of caustic cracking, a certain feature has been recognized that appeared to be associated only with caustic cracking. This was a preferential attack on the carbide envelopes and lamellae of the pearlite grains. Evidence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... from the development of a crack from the internal surface — as seen in the photomicrograph, Figure 1 . Microscopic examination revealed that extensive intergranular penetration by molten copper had occurred and particles of copper were to be seen in the scale deposits on the bore of the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and its alloys is illustrated by examples from practice and reference is made to data from recent publications on the subject. Embrittlement due to this cause can only be identified by microscopic examination because other modes of failure in copper; e.g., from heat cracking, mechanical overload...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...Abstract Abstract Following leakage which developed within the furnace of a horizontal multi-tubular type boiler, examination revealed a series of cracks adjacent to the stiffening rings in the first plain furnace ring. The fire-side surface of the sample was coated with a layer of oxide scale...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ride directly on the axles. This article provides a fractography/fracture mechanic approach to making the determination of when the axle failed. Full scale tests on axle assemblies and suspensions provided data for fracture toughness in the induction hardened outer case on the axle. These tests also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the grain boundaries, all fracture surface features would have matched at least approximately on a microscopic scale, as is observed for intergranular fracture, normal fatigue fracture (for which striation markings invariably match), or cleavage ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ). Although the microscopic topography...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the spreading crack approaches the terminal fracture velocity of the material, the single crack front begins to break up on a microscopic scale. This is seen on the fracture surface as a roughening of the surface, giving it a misty appearance. This microscopic breaking up of the crack front allows an increased...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on a microscopic scale must be imaged and interpreted; this interpretation needs to be considered in conjunction with macroscopic features, the gross condition of a component, and the environment in which the component was operated to determine the mode and cause of failure. FAILURE ANALYSIS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in some quarters even today. It is now well known that a fatigue failure starts on a microscopic scale as a minute crack at some point of high stress concentration, conveniently termed a it sensitive spot,” and gradually extends under the influence of stress fluctuations until rupture supervenes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... surfaces inclined to the surface of the sheet ( Fig. 6 ). All of the above features were subsequently documented using the SEM, and several higher-magnification views were taken to determine the microscopic scale features of the fracture surface. A low-magnification fractograph is shown in Fig. 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the macroscopic and microscopic scales of observation. However, what about the cold-worked material? There was plastic deformation (presumably compressive) during manufacturing, and the presence of prior cold work may explain the absence of the macroscopic necking. Metallographic observation and/or hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... worked material. The microscopic mechanism of fracture in the annealed material is a ductile mechanism (microvoid coalescence), and macroscopic deformation preceded fracture. Thus, there is little confusion in describing the fracture as ductile on both the macroscopic and microscopic scales...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanics fracture modes fracture surface lubricants macroscopic examination mechanical testing microscopic examination nondestructive inspection sampling simulated-service testing stress analysis wear failure ANALYZING the inevitable failures that occur during testing, manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... topographical features (bumps) begin to interact. This interaction causes deformation, and bearing surface fracture occurs on a microscopic scale. Under such conditions, prolonged sliding increases wear and leads to bearing damage. This bearing surface damage can be prevented by avoiding direct mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... may introduce IG, transgranular, or quasicleavage cracking, and, although the macroscopic features appear to be brittle, on a microscopic scale there is a high degree of local plasticity, suggesting that hydrogen enhances flow at the crack tip. For many years, environmental cracking of aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lighting and microscopic photography. Special techniques can be employed to deal with highly reflective conditions and are also described in this article. digital cameras failure analysis microscopic photography photographic lighting visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS is an investigative...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... grinding abrasion produces wear by a combination of cutting, plastic deformation, surface fracture on a microscopic scale, as well as by tearing and fatigue, or spalling ( Ref 9 ). In ore processing plants, high-stress abrasion produces practically all of the wear on grinding balls and liners in ball...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of cutting, plastic deformation, surface fracture on a microscopic scale, as well as by tearing and fatigue, or spalling ( Ref 9 ). In ore-processing plants, high-stress abrasion produces practically all of the wear on grinding balls and liners in ball mill grinding units. In rod mills that accept larger...