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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the visual or macroscopic examination of damaged materials and interpretation of damage and fracture features. Analytical tools available for evaluations of corrosion and wear damage features include energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., which resulted from heating during welding. Electron probe x-ray microanalysis showed the outside surface of the tube did not have the protective chromium oxide scale normally found on Incoloy 800. The inside surface of the tube had a thin chromium oxide protective scale. This evidence supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... any stainless steel from the spacer. Other items for investigation were the nature of the bond between the galled spot and the inner cone and any evidence of overtempering or rehardening resulting from localized overheating. Analysis (visual inspection, electron probe x-ray microanalysis, microscopic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... roll quality, viz. characteristics of graphite, carbides, martensite, etc., have been extensively studied through optical microscopy, quantitative image analysis (QIA), and electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA). These are discussed in the context of spalling propensity and roll life. Hardness Hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., carburizing grade steel and had failed in service within a year of fitting to a repaired shaft. Microscopic observations of both the broken roller and inner-race samples revealed subsurface cracking and preponderance of brittle oxide and other macroinclusions. Electron probe microanalysis studies confirmed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... Microstructural issues influencing roll quality, such as characteristics of carbides, tempered martensite, retained austenite, etc., have been extensively studied through optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, image analysis, and x-ray diffractometry. These are discussed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and x-ray microanalysis in conjunction with dimensional analysis, phase diagrams and thermodynamics considerations were employed to evaluate the various hypotheses. All evidence pointed to an oxide mass in the area where the hole developed, likely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... entrapment of foreign bodies, resulting from steel making/deoxidizing/teeming stages. The occasionally globular nature of the foreign particles suggested these were formed at the liquid condition of the steel. The ratio of Mn-Si as seen on electron probe microanalysis also suggested the globules high in Mn...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0046981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the valve. Analysis (visual inspection, electron probe x-ray microanalysis, hardness testing, 4.5x fractograph) supported the conclusions that failure of the valve stem occurred by fatigue as a result of a combination of a nonuniform bending load, which caused a mild stress-concentration condition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., passed at 1150 psig. The sour gas was heated to 600 deg F by burners playing on the outside of the tube burning “sweet” gas plus air. The inner and outer surfaces of all samples showed evidence of corrosive attack. Electron probe microanalysis showed the corrosion products contained sulfur with iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with additional samples representing the various resistor failures. Visual examination revealed two different types of termination failures: total delamination and partial delamination. Electron probe microanalysis confirmed that the fracture occurred at the end of the termination. Transverse sections from each...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... due to disintegration/failure of individual groups of wires. To understand the genesis of LCTR wire failures, a detailed metallurgical investigation of failed rope wires was made and included visual examination, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... correspond to specific intermetallic compounds that are found in the aluminum-iron phase diagram. X-ray microanalysis of reaction zone at the aluminum wire/steel screw interface shown in <xref rid="c0049838-f2" ref-type="fig">Fig. 2(a)</xref> Table 1 X-ray microanalysis of reaction zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...) was visible. Fig. 6 Higher magnification SEM of the ratcheting effect observed on the fracture surface Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA) was used to qualitatively determine the bolt chemistry and to verify the presence of any coatings on the bolt or other associated components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... References 1. Newbury D.E. and Ritchie N.W.M. , Performing Elemental Microanalysis with High Accuracy and High Precision by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Silicon Drift Detector Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (SEM/SDD-EDS) , J. Mater. Sci. , Vol 50 ( No. 2 ), Jan 2015...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... probe microanalysis performed on a microspecimen did not reveal any mercury at or near the cracks. Chemical analysis of the lithium bromide solution revealed significant quantities of nitrates in the solution. Such nitrates are normally added to the lithium bromide solution to act as corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...) additions of copper, nickel, and cobalt. Microanalysis after dissolution of the alumimum-containing zones gave the following values: Cr % Mo % V % Al % 5,56 1,19 0,28 0,37 (a)from remaining adhesions A steel of similar compositon, the material X 38 Cr Mo V 5 1 (W-No. 2343...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the strictly qualitative mode. Interpreting the quantitative results from such a test would be very difficult at best. In modern x-ray microanalysis, the analyst actually has a second (less common in commercial laboratories) choice for the x-ray spectrometer: the wavelength-dispersive spectrometer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on determining the concentration of species on grain boundaries, because they proved to be the preferred path for crack propagation. Microanalysis was also conducted on precipitates in the microstructure as well as on the matrix. A SEM micrograph of two such precipitates—one on a grain boundary and one embedded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... has proved to be the most useful in this regard because it can detect thin-film residues, which may include traces of the stress-corrosion environment, and because it has high spatial resolution for documenting the fractographic features and selecting areas for microanalysis. Overload fracture...