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metallurgical phase transformation

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... metallurgical crystal structure microstructure phase transformations quenching quench-process design residual stress retained austenite steel stress tempering Abstract This article provides an overview of the effects of various material- and process-related parameters on residual stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for how this swell could precipitate a BLEVE. The first scenario is that the top portion of the tank, which is above the liquid level, becomes heated to above approximately 750 °C and transforms to austenite. The subsequent two-phase swell then fills the tank and cools the steel rapidly enough...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... failures whereby components that cracked either during or immediately after the heat treatment/quenching operation were sectioned for metallographic examination of the microstructure to examine the degree of phase transformation. Examination of premature tensile specimen failures by scanning electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the presence of 1–6% retained austenite at various locations. Since the austenite is the softer phase compared with bainite, it will be expected that the transformation of rest of the bainite induced the mechanical stresses, upon cooling, which will be distributed equally in all directions. However...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... metallurgical instabilities, such as transgranular-intergranular fracture transition, recrystallization, aging or overaging (phase precipitation or decomposition of carbides, borides, or nitrides), intermetallic-phase precipitation, delayed transformation to equilibrium phases, order-disorder transition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... polymer conductive ink. Fourier transform infrared analysis determined that this dark-appearing phase was actually resin separation from the epoxy binder in the thick-film ink. The following features can be discerned: area 1 is the alumina substrate; area 2 is the cermet metallization; area 3 is the thick...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., homogeneity, etc.) be obtained either before initial use of a component, or before the use of a component can be safely resumed. In this paper, the use of standard metallurgical laboratory equipment, and the procedures required to conduct nondestructive on-site metallographic analyses of engineering materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 37 , Sept 1981 , p 530 – 532 10.5006/1.3580801 31. Holzworth M.L. and Louthan M.R. Jr. , Hydrogen-Induced Phase Transformations in Type 304L Stainless Steels , Corrosion , Vol 24 , April 1968 , p 110 – 124 10.5006/0010-9312-24.4.110 32. Narita N. et al...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... charging that partially transforms the austenite to ferrite or martensite ( Ref 25 ). These phases can also be formed in 304 or 304L, and in other low-stability austenitic stainless steels, by cold working (uncharged) specimens at low temperatures. Tests of more stable austenitic grades, such as AISI 310...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., such as void formation, the precipitation of new phases, dissolution or growth of desired phases, grain growth, and so on. A sharp change of slope in a rupture life curve can occur from metallurgical instabilities, such as TG-IG fracture transition, recrystallization, aging or overaging (phase...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Phase Transformation in Alloys , Metall. Trans. , Vol 3 , 1972 , p 1137 – 1145 16. Richman R.H. , McNaughton W.P. , and Rao A.S. , Cyclic Deformation and Phase Transformation in Cavitation Erosion of Alloys , Int. Conf. on Cavitation , C453/051, Institution of Mechanical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Examination Chemical Analysis/Identification Simulation Tests The high-oxygen phases in the banded region were of two different types. The phases shown in Fig. 4 appeared similar to the dissociated intermetallics observed in the transformed surface region obtained during simulated tests ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... austenite and upon subsequent cooling to room temperature transformed to virgin (unaged) martensite and retained austenite 3 . This will be discussed further in the X-ray phase of the report. Fig. 3 Microstructure of the as-received condition showing thermal effect at various inner-wall locations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... not get as hot, but still had the same lamellar colonies; Fig. 26 shows complete spheroidization. This change in microstructures in 1¼ chromium steel typically occurs only at elevated temperatures, but below the critical transformation temperature, which is near 720 °C. Complete phase transformation can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , Chem. Eng. , Vol 93 ( No. 1 ), ( 6 Jan 1986 ) 16. Lai G.Y. , Proceedings in High Temperature Corrosion of Energy Systems , Rutman M.F. , Ed., The Metallurgical Society , 1980 , p 45 17. Verma K.M. , Ghosh H. , and Rai J.S. , Br. Corros. J. , Vol 13...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are stress rupture, creep, low- or high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, and coating degradation in gas turbines. For high-temperature tubing and piping components, embrittlement phenomena can occur at high temperatures due to metallurgical instabilities; for example, carbide coarsening, sigma-phase formation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... manner, because the austenitic manganese steel from which it was cast became embrittled after being reheated in the temperature range of 455 to 595 deg C (850 to 1100 deg F) for prolonged periods of time. The alloy was not suitable for this application, because of its metallurgical instability under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of austenite into softer phases (i.e. ferrite-pearlite) is slowed down with the increase in the tendency for martensitic transformations and the hardenability therefore increases. This increase in hardenability is responsible for the transformation of austenite into martensite even under the conditions of slow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... sustained temperatures of 538 °C (1000 °F) or higher (well above the outlet temperature of 193 °C, or 380 °F). However, the absence of high-temperature transformation phases in the microstructure, such as bainite or martensite, indicates tube wall temperatures were below 732 °C (1350 °F) at the time...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Metallurgical Services, Inc. Exceedingly pure materials, particularly unalloyed metals with few inclusions, can exhibit extremely high reduction in area, or necking, at the fracture site. In most engineering materials, impurities and second-phase particles are always present. As would be expected...