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metallurgical microstructure evolution

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and ductility and is consistent with the macro- and microscopic observations. Combined effects of high temperature internal oxidation/ corrosion, intergranular attack, exposure of metal to incipient melting temperature coupled together with microstructural evolution led to severe reduction in wall thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the failure specimens. Selection of the most informative cross-section locations is important. Metallurgical examination of a cross section requires mounting, surface grinding, polishing, and examining the sample in the unetched and etched condition under a microscope. Microstructural features and conditions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... A. : Laser cladding of aerospace materials . J. Mater. Process . 122 , 63 – 68 ( 2002 ) 10.1016/S0924-0136(01)01121-9 3. Dinda G.P. , Dasgupta A.K. , Mazumder J. : Laser aided direct deposition of Inconel 625 superalloy: microstructural evolution and thermal stability . Mater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... cutting was used to remove the weld. This type of sectioning was selected to prevent overheating and either metallurgical or structural damage to the weld and heat-affected zone (HAZ) microstructure. The removed weld was further sectioned using a band saw to facilitate macroscopic, metallographic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and environment have acted to change the metallurgical structure of the component (see, for example, the section “Metallurgical Instabilities” in this article). aging carbide reactions creep deformation creep fatigue failure creep-rupture failure microstructural changes stress-rupture failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses metallurgical instabilities of steel-based alloys and nickel-base superalloys. It provides information on several life assessment methods, namely, the life fraction rule, parameter-based assessments, the thermal-mechanical fatigue, coating evaluations, hardness testing, microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to change the metallurgical structure during service and thus to change the strength. The microstructure of a creep or stress-rupture specimen after elevated-temperature exposure rarely resembles the initial microstructure, and prolonged exposure under creep conditions can result in microstructural changes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... electrochemical reactions into partial reactions makes them simpler to understand. Iron and aluminum, like zinc, are also rapidly corroded by hydrochloric acid. Thus, the problem of hydrochloric acid corrosion is simplified, because in every case, the cathodic reaction is the evolution of hydrogen gas according...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surroundings. The microstructural evolution of shear bands in annealed (95 HRB) 1060 steel is shown in Fig. 21 ( Ref 5 ). Adiabatic shear bands in the same steel but with a hardness of 45 HRC are shown in Fig. 22 . The metallographic samples were nickel plated for good edge retention. Targets (see Fig. 6...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on the microstructural evolution of pearlite spheroidization grade proposed in [ 7 ]. This system enables the convenient evaluation of the stage of degradation of exposed components. In our case, the exposed tube was in degradation stage E to F, indicating that the tube would have soon been rendered unserviceable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract A natural gas pipeline explosion and subsequent fire significantly altered the pipeline steel microstructure, obscuring in part the primary cause of failure, namely, coating breakdown at a local hard spot in the steel. Chemical analysis was made on pieces cut from the portion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in failure. Finally, the material is examined for inherent defects in manufacture, processing, or assembly. Microstructural defects, subsurface laminations, and welding defects are common examples of materials defects that cause failure. In many cases when there is clear evidence of a materials-related...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... , Gola A. , Vegter R.H. , Yan P. , and Stadler K. , Evolution of White-Etching Cracks and Associated Microstructural Alterations during Bearing Tests , Mater. Sci. Technol. , Vol 33 ( No. 14 ), 2017 , p 1657 – 1666 10.1080/02670836.2017.1310431 74. Bruce T. , Long...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with metallographic planes ( Ref 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ). A fracture profile can be observed by using a standard metallurgical light microscope or an SEM. An important advantage of fracture profilometry is that the underlying microstructure can be observed simultaneously and, therefore, it can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in failure. Finally, the material is examined for inherent defects in manufacture, processing, or assembly. Microstructural defects, subsurface laminations, and welding defects are common examples of materials defects that cause failure. In many cases when there is clear evidence of a materials-related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... and the lighter horse, carriage and pedestrian traffic at the sides. The deck and sidewalk structure are placed on top of the longitudinal girders, the walk extending out beyond the outer girders. The deck and walk structures have been subjected to several stages of evolution throughout the life of this bridge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and Running-In of Lubricated Surfaces, with Asperities and Oxides in Perspective , Wear , Vol 100 , 1984 , p 315 – 331 10.1016/0043-1648(84)90019-X 47. Ajayi O.O. , Hershberger J. , Zhang J. , Yoon H. , and Fenske G.R. , Microstructural Evolution during Scuffing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... participate in addition to the specialists, once again to ensure a broader perspective. For example, a metallurgist may be more likely to report a metallurgical deficiency in a product that contributed to the failure, a fabricator is more likely to point to fabrication-related contributors, and a designer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... specific anions can inhibit the crack-producing effect of a given environment on a given alloy. Certain aspects of the metallurgical structure of an alloy (such as grain size, crystal structure, and number of phases) influence the susceptibility of the alloy to SCC in a given environment. Stress...